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Social cognition

When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:


This guy measured morality by analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong.

Mock and ridicule their victim

Girls who bully usually:

Does not take into account cultural differences

Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because it:

Functions of a family

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are:


The key word in the definition of bullying is:

During the school years

Self-esteem typically decreases when?

Richard, who is being raised by his single mom

This child is at the greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult:


Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all a part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:

The preoperational stage

The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of preconventional morality is:

Nuclear family

Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with their:

Withdrawn-rejected child

Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8 yr old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a:

Genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on some abilities

Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan's math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:

African Americans

In the U.S., which ethnic group is most likely to accept and support single parents?

Postconventional morality

A Florida man killed a doctor who performs abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he would be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of:

Factors related to resilience in at-risk children

Self-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structure/rules within the household are all:

A spurt of height

The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is:


For males, the hormone that produces the most sexual changes is:

Rebecca, who is of African descent

This girl will be most likely to experience menarche first:

Teasing and name-calling from her classmates

Ellie is a 10 year old and well into puberty. She will probably experience:

Bulimia nervosa

Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards, she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from:

The family sharing meals together

This behavior seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder:

The uterus and testes begin to grow

Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:

Prefrontal cortex

Of the following parts of the brain, this is the last to fully mature in adolescence:

The invincibility fable

16 yr old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. He is demonstrating:

Her belief in an imaginary audience

Marsha says, "There is no ways I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Martha is demonstrating:

Deductive reasoning

Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizen's health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:

Inductive reasoning

This refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, then make general conclusions:

Culture and social context

This has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening:

This is due to hormonal shifts

Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should realize that:

Genes, body fat/nutrition, and stress

Besides gender, the three main factors that affect the timing of puberty are:

Secondary sex characteristics

These are the characteristics that are not directly related to reproduction:

Serial monogamy

The pattern in which a person limits sexual activity to one steady partner at a time is called:

Suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible, as Martha was.

Martha was a 21 yr old girl living in the US in the early 1800s. Suzanne is a 21 yr old girl living in the US in 2008. What is a primary developmental difference between these two young women?

Social context

While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, this factor more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity:


While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, this factor more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity:

The diathesis-stress model

Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby was raised by his grandparents. Now, at age 22, Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by this developmental concept:

20 years of age

Sex hormone production peaks at around:

Relationship with self

During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily in:

Personality is both continuous and discontinuous

If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?

Intimacy vs. Isolated

According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve what crisis?


Not only do those with college degrees on average have higher incomes, but college also correlates with better:

More; fewer

Today's emerging adults have _____ sexual partners and _____ babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.

18-24 year olds

This age group reports the lowest rates of chronic illness:

reflective; hypothetical

Thinking may become more _____ and _____ with each year of college.

Form a coherent identity

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:

Attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically


The ultimate psychosocial goal, according to Erikson is:

Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires

Gender identity refers to _____, while sexual orientation refers to _____.

Part of a warm, supportive relationship

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:

Early adolescence

In the U.S., parent-child conflict peaks in:

Mikhael's family will depend on him to mediate between the family's old and new cultures

Mikhael, who is 15, has just moved to the United STates with his parents from Ukraine. Mikhael's English skills are good, but his parents speak no English at all. Which of the following likely to be true of Mikhael and his family?

Open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the United States

A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found that .5 percent of American high school students to identify themselves as homosexual, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 percent of students said that they were attracted to others of the same sex. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?

The parent's answers grossly underestimate their daughter's behaviors

You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12 year old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12 year old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?

Teenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.

According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that:

Less self-confidant than they were as children

Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are:

Girls than in boys

Suicidal ideation is more common in:

Completed suicide

Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

A diagnosable psychiatric disorder

The most common risk factor for suicide in general is:

In the 15-24 and over 65 age groups

In the US, suicide rates spike

The view that one is noticed by everyone

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to:

A truth regarding the self-esteem of emerging adults

In spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face, their self-esteem is higher than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood. This statement is:

children grow more slowly than they did in early childhood.

When you look at the rate of growth for children from ages 7 to 11, you see that:


The number of overweight children in the United States has increased ______ since 1980.

selective attention

Growth in brain sophistication during middle childhood allows the child to direct his or her focus on certain self-chosen environmental elements to the exclusion of others. This ability is known as:

achievement test.

April is tested on her mastery of college chemistry. She is taking a(n):

musical ability is a type of intelligence.

Howard Gardner believes that:


Mental age divided by one's chronological age and multiplied by 100 is the:

concrete operational thought.

In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:

the no child left behind act

The issue of local control of curriculum and national standards is a controversial aspect of:

the preoperational stage.

The Piagetian stage of development that matches Kohlberg's stage of preconventional morality is:


The only country to have a nationwide effort to reduce bullying is:

first ejaculation of live sperm.

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the:

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