Upgrade to remove ads
IGCSE ICT Terms Revision
Terms in this set (202)
Hardware is the physical parts of the computer system - the parts that you can touch and see.
Software is a collection of instructions that can be 'run' on a computer. These instructions tell the computer what to do.
What is the Difference Between Hardware and Software
Computer hardware is the physical components that make up the computer system. Hardware is useless without software to run on it.
The CPU is the 'brain' of the computer. It is the device that carries out software instructions.
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the part of the computer that temporarily stores the instructions that the computer is running, and the data it is processing.
ROM Stands For
Read-Only Memory (ROM) is used in most computers to hold a small, special piece of software: the 'boot up' program.
What Are Input Devices
Devices that pass data into the computer are known as input devices.
Example of Input Device
A keyboard, a mouse and a webcam are all examples of input devices.
What Are Output Devices
Devices that take data from the computer are known as output devices.
Example of Output Device
A monitor, a printer and a loudspeaker are all examples of output devices.
What is Secondary / Backing Storage
Secondary storage (sometimes called backing storage) is the name for all of the devices (apart from ROM and RAM) that can store data in a computer system.
Example of Secondary / Backing Storage
A hard drive, a CD-ROM, a floppy disc and a USB memory stick are all examples of secondary storage devices.
What is an Operating System
An operating system is a special piece of software that manages the general operation of a computer system:
A GUI is an interface built around visual (graphical) things
Example of a GUI Interface
Ubuntu, Windows, Android, OSX, IOS
CLI Stands For
Command Line Interface
Many years ago when computers were not very powerful they could not display the colourful graphics required for a GUI. The only interface available to most computer uses was the 'command line
A mainframe computer is a large computer, often used by large businesses, in government offices, or by universities
Personal Computer (PC)
The early 1980s saw a revolution in computing: The creation of computers that were small enough to fit on a desk, and cheap enough that everyone could have their own, personal computer, instead of having to share access to a mainframe
A 'laptop' computer is a light, compact and portable PC.
A palmtop computer is similar to a laptop computer, but smaller. It's small enough to fit in the palm of your hand (hence the name!)
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A PDA is similar to a palmtop computer, except it is even more compact, and typically has no keyboard, using a touchscreen for all data input. Since the screen is so small, many PDAs have a small stylus (plastic stick) that is used to press things on the screen.
A very common, general purpose, input device that allows text (abc...), numbers (123...) and symbols (%$@...) to be entered into a computer
A small keyboard that only has numbers.
This is a device with a numeric keypad used to enter a person's Personal Identity Number (PIN) e.g. when paying with a credit card.
A pointing device found on most PCs. Sensors on the bottom of the mouse detect when the mouse is moved. Data about this movement is sent to the computer.
Touchpad / Trackpad
A pointing device found on most laptops. Used instead of a mouse since it takes up less space. The user moves a finger across the touch pad and this movement data is sent to the computer.
Trackball / Tracker Ball
This pointing device is not moved about like a mouse, instead it has a large ball that the user spins. Data about which direction the ball is spun is passed to the computer.
A touch screen is an alternative to a separate pointing device. With a touch screen the user selects items on the screen by touching the surface. This makes touch screen systems very intuitive and simple to use.
A pointing device often used by designers and artists to allow natural hand movements to be input to graphics applications.
Joystick / Joypad
Used mainly for playing games. The user moves the joystick left/right, forward/back and data about these movements are sent to the computer.
A light pen is a device used as a pointing device or to 'write' on the screen of a computer.
A device that 'scans' images, book pages, etc.
A device that captures digital photographs.
A device that captures moving images, or video.
This is a very basic video camera used to feed live video into a computer.
An input device that converts sound into a signal that can be fed into a computer.
Magnetic Strip Reader
Many plastic cards, such as credit cards, have a strip of material that can be magnetised on the back. Data can be stored here in the form of magnetised dots.
Smart Card / 'Chip' Reader
Modern credit cards and ID cards don't use a magnetic strip. Instead they have a tiny 'chip' of computer memory embedded inside them. (These cards are often referred to as smart cards.)
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) is a technology that allows details from bank cheques to be read into a computer quickly and accurately.
Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is a technology that allows the data from a multiple-choice type form to be read quickly and accurately into a computer.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a software technology that can convert images of text into an actual text file that can then be edited, e.g. using word-processing software). The result is just as if the text had been typed in by hand.
Barcode Reader / Scanner
A barcode is simply a numeric code represented as a series of lines.
These devices are very common. They send data signals each time a button is pressed using infrared light or radio signals.
A monitor displays text and image data passed to it by the computer.
Flat-Screen Monitor (TFT or LCD)
Over the past few years, as they have come down in price, flat-screen displays have replaced CRT monitors.
Digital / Multimedia Projector
Digital projectors are used in situations when a very large viewing area is required, for example during presentations, for advertising, or in your home for watching movies.
If you want to hear music or sounds from your computer, you will have to attach loudspeakers. They convert electrical signals into sound waves.
Dot Matrix Printer
A dot-matrix printer is named after the pattern (a grid or 'matrix') of dots used when creating the paper printout.
Cheap, high-quality, full-colour printing became available during the 1980s due to the development of ink-jet printers.
Laser printers are very complex devices, and thus expensive to buy. However they are very cheap to use. This is because they produce marks on paper using a fine dust called toner which is relatively cheap to buy. A single toner cartridge will often last for 5,000-10,000 pages of printing.
Plotters create hard-copy in a very different way to printers. Instead of building up text and images from tiny dots, plotters draw on the paper using a pen.
Motors can provide movement.
A pump is basically a motor attached to a device that can push water or air along pipes. When the motor is switched on, water or air flows along the pipes to places it is needed.
Buzzers can provide noise.
Lightbulbs and LEDs can by used to provide light, or to indicate something.
Heaters / Coolers
Heaters can provide heat, and coolers can cool things down.
Main memory (sometimes known as internal memory or primary storage) is another name for RAM (and ROM).
Backing storage (sometimes known as secondary storage) is the name for all other data storage devices in a computer: hard-drive, etc.
Serial / Sequential Access
A serial (or sequential) access storage device is one that stores files one-by-one in a sequence.
Direct / Random Access
A direct (or 'random') access storage device is one that stores files so that they can be instantly accessed - there is no need to search through other files to get to the one you want.
Hard-drives have a very large storage capacity (up to 1TB). They can be used to store vast amounts of data. Hard-drives are random access devices and can be used to store all types of films, including huge files such as movies. Data access speeds are very fast.
Fixed Hard Drive
A hard-drive built into the case of a computer is known as 'fixed'. Almost every computer has a fixed hard-drive.
Portable Hard Drive
A portable hard-drive is one that is placed into a small case along with some electronics that allow the hard-drive to be accessed using a USB or similar connection.
Magnetic tape is a large capacity, serial access medium. Because it is a serial access medium, accessing individual files on a tape is slow.
A removable, portable, cheap, low-capacity (1.44MB) storage medium. Floppy discs are random access devices used for transfer small amounts of data between computers, or to back-up small files, etc. Access times are slow.
A removable and portable storage medium, similar in appearance to a floppy disk, but with a much higher capacity (100MB, 250MB or 750MB).
A removable and portable storage medium based on hard-drive technology, with a large capacity (1GB or 2GB).
Compact Disc - Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) discs can hold around 800MB of data. The data cannot be altered (non-volatile), so cannot be accidently deleted. CD-ROMs are random-access devices.
Digital Versatile Disc - Read-Only Memory (DVD-ROM) discs can hold around 4.7GB of data (a dual-layer DVD can hold twice that). DVD-ROMs are random-access devices.
Blu-Ray disks are a recent replacement for DVDs. A Blu-Ray disc can hold 25 - 50GB of data (a dual-layer Blu-Ray disc can hold twice that). Blu-Ray discs are random-access devices.
High-density DVD (HD-DVD) discs can hold around 15GB of data (a dual-layer HD-DVD can hold twice that). HD-DVDs are random-access devices.
CD-R and DVD-R
CD-Recordable (CD-R) and DVD-recordable (DVD-R) discs can have data burnt onto them, but not erased. You can keep adding data until the disc is full, but you cannot remove any data or re-use a full disc.
CD-RW and DVD-RW
CD-ReWritable (CD-RW) and DVD-ReWritable (DVD-RW) discs, unlike CD-Rs and DVD-Rs, can have data burnt onto them and also erased so that the discs can be re-used.
DVD-Random Access Memory (DVD-RAM) discs are a type of re-writable DVD. They often come in a floppy-disc style case (to protect the disc).
Flash memory is a type of Electronically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM). Flash memory is non-volatile (like ROM) but the data stored in it can also be erased or changed (like RAM).
USB Memory Sticks
Memory sticks (or 'thumb-drives') have made many other forms of portable storage almost obsolete (why burn a CD or DVD when you can more easily copy your files onto a memory stick?).
Many of our digital devices (cameras, mobile phones, MP3 players, etc.) require compact, non-volatile data storage. Flash memory cards provide this and come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Many credit cards (e.g. 'chip-and-pin' cards), door entry cards, satellite TV cards, etc. have replaced the very limited storage of the magnetic strip (the dark strip on the back of older cards) with flash memory. This is more reliable and has a much larger storage capacity.
What is a Backup
A backup simply means making one or more copies of your data.
What is a Network
A network is two or more computers, or other electronic devices, connected together so that they can exchange data.
Why Use Networks
Using a computer connected to a network allows us to...
Easily share files and data
Share resources such as printers and Internet connections
Communicate with other network users (e-mail, instant messaging, video-conferencing, etc.)
Store data centrally (using a file server) for ease of access and backup
Keep all of our settings centrally so we can use any workstation
Why Not Use Networks
Using a computer connected to a network means that...
The computer is vulnerable to hackers
If the network breaks, many tasks become very difficult
Your computer can more easily be attacked by a virus
Client computers, or workstations, are the normal computers that people sit at to get their work done.
Servers are special, powerful computers that provide 'services' to the client computers on the network.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A Local Area Network is a network confined to one building or site.
Often a LAN is a private network belonging to an organisation or business.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN that uses radio signals (WiFi) to connect computers instead of cables.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A Wide Area Network is a network that extends over a large area.
Bluetooth (Personal Area Network)
Bluetooth is a wireless networking technology designed for very short-range connections (typically just a few metres).
In this type of network, a long, central cable, the 'bus' is used to connect all of the computers together. Each computer has a short cable linking it to the 'bus'.
In this type of network each computer is connected to a loop of cable, the 'ring'. (If you took a bus network and connected the ends of the bus cable together, you would have a ring network.)
In this type of network every computer is connected to a central device. The device passes messages between computers.
A hybrid network is simply one that combines two or more of the above basic topologies.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Any computer that is to be connected to a network, needs to have a network interface card (NIC).
To connect together different devices to make up a network, you need cables.
A hub is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN.
A switch, like a hub, is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN.
A router is a network device that connects together two or more networks.
A proxy server is a computer setup to share a resource, usually an Internet connection.
A bridge is a network device that typically links together two different parts of a LAN.
A firewall is a device, or a piece of software that is placed between your computer and the rest of the network (where the hackers are!)
Before the days of broadband Internet connections, most computers connected to the Internet via telephone lines (dial-up connections).
What Can We Use the Internet For
The Internet provides the network connections that links computers together. There are many ways that we can use these connections:
View web pages on the WWW (World-Wide Web)
Sending and receiving e-mail messages
Communicating using voice (VOIP) and video (video-conferencing)
Playing multi-player games
Listening to streamed music or watching streamed video
An intranet is the name given to a private network that provides similar services to The Internet: e-mail, messaging, web pages, etc.
If you were asked to build a small, Internet-connected network from scratch, what would you need to do
You would need to buy some hardware:
One or more switches / hubs - to link devices together
Network cables to connect devices to the switch, etc.
A separate wireless access point (or this could be part of the switch) - to allow wireless devices (e.g. laptops or smart-phones) to join the network
A router to connect your LAN to the Internet (WAN)
A firewall to protect your network from hackers
Possibly a bridge if you already have a section of network and you want your new network to connect to it
Server(s) to manage network functions such as network security, network file storage, shared resources (such as printers)
You would need to organise some other things:
Set up an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Get an Internet connection installed from the ISP to your location
Configure various bits of hardware and software so that everything worked with the network
Ways to prevent Unauthorised Access
Use a Username and Have a Good Password
Always Install and Use a Firewall
Way to Secure your Data
Numeric data simply means numbers. But, just to complicate things for you, numbers come in a variety of different types.
Types of Numeric Data
Alphanumeric (Text) Data
Date and Time Data
Boolean (Logical) Data
What is a Record
The set of data associated with a single object or person is known as a record.
What is a Field
A field is a data structure for a single piece of data.
What is a Key Field / Primary Key
It is very important that every record in a database can be individually identified. We need to be sure that when we access a record, we are accessing the correct one.
Database Viewed as a Table
It is quite common to view the contents of a database as a table instead of one record at a time. A tabular view is compact and allows you to see a lot of records in one go.
A 'flat-file' database is one that only contains a single table of data.
A 'relational' database is one that contains two or more tables of data, connected by links called relationships.
An analogue signal is one which has a value that varies smoothly and is continuous where Digital is Discrete
Digital Data is discrete where Analogue is Continuous
Analogue to Digital Convertor (ADC)
If you want to attach an analogue input device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need an analogue to digital convertor (ADC).
Digital to Analogue Convertor (DAC)
If you want to attach an analogue output device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need a digital to analogue convertor (DAC).
Areas of Increased Unemployment
Areas of Increased Employment
What is a Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a small CPU built into a single 'chip' (see right).
Examples of Microprocessor-Controlled Devices
Many of the electronic devices that we use contain a microprocessor.
The Effect of These Devices on Our Lives
Look at the list of devices above. Now try to imagine living without them - washing your clothes by hand! Life would be a lot tougher.
One health issue that can occur after using computers for a long time is eye-strain (tiredness of the eyes).
Back and Neck Ache
Many people suffer from back and neck pain after working at a computer for a long time. This is usually due to them having a bad sitting posture.
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) in Wrists and Hands
Any repetitive movement (same movement over and over again) can result in a health problem called repetitive strain injury (RSI).
Safety Issues with ICT
Spilt Drinks or Food
Overloaded Power Sockets
Heavy Objects Falling
What is Hacking
The word 'hacking' has several meanings, but in the context of ICT, it is normally taken to mean breaking in to a computer system.
Why Do Hackers Hack
A hacker may break into a system just out of curiosity or for the challenge - can they get through the system's defences? But, it is more likely that they are breaking in to access data, usually because the data has value.
Can a Computer be Protected from Hacking
Just as in the real world, there is no guaranteed way to stop someone breaking into a building (you can make it very difficult, but every security system has its weaknesses), there is also no guaranteed way to stop someone breaking into a computer system.
What is Malware
Malware is short for malicious software.
Malware is the name given to any software that could harm a computer system, interfere with a user's data, or make the computer perform actions without the owner's knowledge or permission.
What is a Computer Virus
A computer virus is a piece of software that can 'infect' a computer (install itself) and copy itself to other computers, without the users knowledge or permission.
How Can a Computer Be Protected from Viruses
There are some simple things you can do to help prevent a virus infecting your computer:
What is Software Copyright
When someone creates an original piece of software, that person then holds something called the copyright for that software. (This is also true when people create books, films and songs.)
What is Web 2.0
'Web 2.0' (pronounced "web two-point-oh") is the (slightly annoying) name given to the the recent development of interactive websites that are quite different to the old, static websites.
Blogs and Blogging
A blog is a website where someone (usually a normal person - not a professional writer) writes about a topic.
A wiki is a website that allows users to collaborate (work together) to create the content. The pages of a wiki can be edited by everyone (or those who have the password) so that different people can add to the page, edit things, fix errors, etc.
Media Uploading Sites
There are many websites that allow users to create, upload and share their own media such as photos, music or video. Usually other users can rate or comment on the media that is uploaded leading to these sites often being referred to as 'Social Media' sites.
A social network website is a site that allows user to connect with other users who are friends / relatives, or who share similar interests.
Internet Use Issues
Reliability of Information
Security of Data Transferred Using the Internet
Ways to Use IT to Help Communicate Information
Producing and Editing Pictures
What Might You Store on a Computer
Your Address Book
Club / Society Records
Results of Surveys
Sales Records for a Tuck Shop
School Library Database
Where is Computer Measurement Used
Why Use Computers to Measure Things
The main reasons that you would want to use a computer-based data-logging system, instead of a person taking measurements are...
Computers do not need to take breaks - they can log data all day, every day, without stopping
Computers take much more accurate readings than humans can
Computers can take data readings more frequently (1000s of times a second if necessary)
Since the logged data is already in a computer, the data can be analysed more quickly and easily (graphs drawn instantly, etc.)
Data logging systems can operate in difficult environments (e.g. in the Arctic, or on top of a mountain)
People are free to do other more useful tasks (rather than watching a thermometer)
What is Turtle Graphics
One system designed to teach students the basics of computer programming and control, is called 'Turtle' Graphics .A 'turtle' is an on-screen object that follows command given to it by the user. As the turtle moves around the screen it drags a 'pen' that leaves a trail behind it.
How Can Computers Control Things
Where is Computer Control Used
Programmable microwave ovens
Why Use Computers to Control Things
Computers never need breaks
Computers don't need to be paid.
Computers can operate in conditions that would be very hazardous to human health
Computers can control systems far more accurately
Computers can respond to changes far more quickly than a human could
What is a Computer Model
A computer model is a computer program that attempts to simulate a real-life system. In other words, it is a 'virtual' version of something in the real-world.
Examples of Computer Modelling
Designing Safer Cars
Building Better Bridges
Running a Business
Training Pilots to Fly an Airplane
Sometimes we have a lot of data to process and it is all of a similar form (e.g. we might have to calculate the pay for 10,000 employees - the calculations we have to do for each employee are very similar)
In cases like this, we can prepare the data into a set or 'batch' and hand it over to the computer to be processed in one go. Once we have prepared the batch of data, no user input is required - the computer works its way through the data automatically.
Sometime we need to process data immediately - we cannot wait and process it later (e.g. using batch processing)
For example, if we want to book a seat on a flight, the booking must be processed immediately. We can't put it in a pile and do it later, because other people might be trying to book the same seat!
An on-line system is one where the user is directly interacting with the computer - the user is 'on-line' with the computer.
So, any system where the user is entering data directly into the computer must be an on-line system. If data is being entered and then processed, it's an on-line processing system.
Ways data can be misused
Data could be deleted (e.g. your bank balance could be wiped out)
Data could be changed (e.g. you could end up with a criminal record, for something you didn't do)
Data could be used for blackmail (e.g. your school record might contain information that you are embarrassed about, and someone might threaten to reveal it to the press!)
Data could be used to help someone impersonate you (e.g. they could apply for a bank loan in your name). This is known as Identity Theft
How Do Bad People Get Your Data
A CD-ROM or memory stick might be left somewhere by mistake (e.g. on a train)
A hacker might break in to a network
A password might be guessed
Information might be sent in an e-mail which is intercepted
Someone might read things on an unattended monitor
The data might be sold by someone for profit
Discarded printouts can be found in bins
How Do You Stop Data Getting into the Wrong Hands
Encrypt files, especially when taken out of the office (e.g. on a memory stick, or sent via e-mail)
Use strong passwords
Lock your computer when you are away from it
Always shred printouts that contain sensitive data
Data Protection Act
Many governments have realised the need to protect peoples' data from misuse, and have created Data Protection Acts. These are a legal rules that must be followed by any business of organisation that keeps a database containing peoples' personal data.
E-mail is a system that allows messages to be sent and received by computers. E-mail is the most common form of electronic communication.
Video-conferencing is a system that allows people to have conversations and meetings with other people in different locations, but without leaving their office.
Mobile telephones allow people to be away from their workplace, yet still be contactable. This means that people can still work, even when out of the office.
Internet Telephony / Voice Over IP (VOIP)
Internet telephony, or 'VOIP', is becoming very popular both for personal use, and within the workplace.
Instead of using the normal telephone network (designed to carry voices using analogue signals), VOIP systems send voices through the Internet as digital data, just like any other Internet data (e.g. e-mails, files, webpages, etc.)
Fax is short for 'facsimile' which means 'copy'. A fax machine is a device that can send a copy of a paper document over the telephone network.
Businesses and organisations usually develop a corporate 'identity' - an image that they use for all documents, websites, etc.
A corporate identity might consist of:
A logo to be used on documents, e-mails, website, etc.
Set of colours / themes
Set of fonts to be used for all documents
A jingle (short tune) for TV / radio advertising
A mascot / character to represent the organisation
Business cards are used by people who want to give their contact details to someone else.
A letterhead is a header / footer used for printed documents such as letters.
A flyer is a small, single sheet, printed document used to advertise an event, a product or an idea.
Printed brochures are designed and produced to give details of an organisation / product / event.
What is an Expert System
An expert system is computer software that attempts to act like a human expert on a particular subject area.
How Do Expert Systems Work
An expert system is made up of three parts:
A user interface - This is the system that allows a non-expert user to query (question) the expert system, and to receive advice. The user-interface is designed to be a simple to use as possible.
A knowledge base - This is a collection of facts and rules. The knowledge base is created from information provided by human experts
An inference engine - This acts rather like a search engine, examining the knowledge base for information that matches the user's query
Where Are Expert Systems Used
discover locations to drill for water / oil
diagnose car engine problems
Can Expert Systems Make Mistakes
Human experts make mistakes all the time (people forget things, etc.) so you might imagine that a computer-based expert system would be much better to have around.
What is an Industrial Robot
When you think of the word 'robot', you might picture a human-shaped robot with arms, legs and a head - the sort you see in sci-fi films. However this is not how the sort of robots used in factories look.
How Are Robots Used in a Factory
Robots in factories are used to:
lift heavy items into from place to place
assemble parts together to create things
join parts together using glue, or by welding (melting metal)
Why Use Computer-Controlled Robots
Robots can work 24 hours a day, every day, with no breaks
Robots don't need to be paid a wage (so money is saved)
Robots are extremely accurate compared to humans, so product quality is high
Robots can perform tasks more quickly than humans, so more products can be made
Factories with robots don't need to be heated or even have the lights on, and they don't need food (so lower day-to-day costs)
Robots can work in very dangerous / unhealthy conditions (e.g. with dangerous chemicals)
Robots don't get bored / hate their job!
Downsides of Robots in Factories
Robots are cannot easily adapt to unusual conditions like a human can (e.g. if an item on the line is not in the correct place, a human worker would notice and correct it)
People are made unemployed because robots are doing their jobs (however some new jobs are created - looking after the robots - and some employees can be retrained)
People are deskilled (this means that, because the robots are doing the complex, skilled tasks that the people used to do, the people are left doing simple, boring jobs)
The robots are very expensive, and it can take several years to pay for them (paying with the savings made by not paying any wages)
How do Booking Systems Work
If we were talking about a single, small cinema, where you had to queue up to buy tickets at the front door, the reservation system would be very simple: We could just use a piece of paper and tick off seats as they were reserved.
However, most booking systems are much more complex than this. A typical booking system must cope with booking requests from many different sources, all arriving at the same time. For example, flights can be booked by customers online, by travel agents in dozens of different offices, by businesses, etc.
Electronic Fund Transfer (ETF)
EFT is a system that allows money transfer instructions to be sent directly to a bank's computer system. Upon receiving one of these instructions, the computer system automatically transfers the specified amount from one account to another.
Using Cash Machines (ATMs)
ATMs can be used to for a range of banking services...
Checking the balance of accounts
Transferring money between accounts
Electronic Payments for Goods (EFTPOS)
Banks allow goods to be paid for electronically, using a system called Electronic Fund Transfer at Point-of-Sale (EFTPOS).
It is now very common for bank customers to access their bank account from home using on-line banking services.
Customers use a computer and connect to the bank's secure (encrypted) website where they login (usually with a username and a password)
This is similar to Internet banking, but does not require a computer, only a normal telephone.
The system works by you calling the bank's telephone banking number then...
You enter your account number (using the phone's number keys)
You enter your PIN / secret code
You then hear various options: ("Press 1 to find your balance, Press 2 to transfer money...")
You pick an option (using the phone's number keys)
And so on...
Processing Cheques (Cheque 'Clearing')
When a cheque arrives at a bank, the information on the cheque has to be entered into the bank's computer system so that the correct funds can be transferred between the correct accounts. Entering this data quickly and accurately is a time-consuming and difficult task.
What is a 'Payroll'
The 'payroll' of a business is the system used to calculate the salary (how much they are paid for their work) of each employee.
How is a Payroll Processed
The payroll is usually processed once a week or once a month (depending upon how often the business pays its employees).
What is a Point-of-Sale
The Point-of-Sale (POS) in a store is the place that you pay for your purchases. It is usually where the till (cash register) is located.
'Chip & PIN' Payment System
Most bankcards no longer rely on a magnetic strip to store customer account details. Instead the cards are smart cards. The cards contain a small amount of computer memory with the account information stored inside.
Internet Shopping (e-Commerce)
In the last few years, Internet shopping has become very popular. Stores like Amazon and the iTunes Store are some of the largest retail businesses in the world. Online you can buy anything from air flights to fresh eggs.
Monitoring of Patients
When a patient is in hospital, they often require close monitoring. It is not possible for a doctor or nurse to monitor patients continuously, 24 hours a day, so computerised monitors are used instead.
Tools to Diagnose Illnesses
CT scanners and MRI scanners allow doctors to investigate what is happening inside a patient's body without intrusive surgery.
Expert systems allow medical staff with limited medical knowledge to get advice from a computer 'expert'
How are Patients Managed
Doctors and hospitals have to deal with thousands of patients every week. It is essential that the medical details of every patient is recorded accurately so that the correct diagnosis can be made, and the correct treatment can be given.
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
Every published book has an International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
The ISBN is typically printed on the back of the book in numeric form, and as a barcode (to allow for quick data entry)
Stages of System Analysis
Research Stage of System Analysis
Collecting information about the present system works
Analysis Stage of System Analysis
Examining out how the present system works and identifying problems with it
Design Stage of System Analysis
Coming up with a new system that will fix the present systems problems
Production Stage of System Analysis
Creating the new system from the design. (Note: details of this stage are not required for IGCSE)
Testing Stage of System Analysis
Checking if the newly created system works as expected
Documentation Stage of System Analysis
Creating documents that describe how to use the new systems, and how it works
Implementation Stage of System Analysis
Replacing the present system with the new system
Evaluation Stage of System Analysis
Checking that the new system meets all expectations
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Networks IGCSE ICT Set 1
Networks IGCSE ICT Set 3
IGCSE ICT exam cards
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
LCHI 303: Chapter 1 "Introduction to Computers"
Basic Computer Concepts
Massive Combined Study Set
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Psych 108 Test 1 (2019)
CHEMMAT 121, Section 3 - Phase diagrams and Alloyi…
CHEMMAT 121, Section 2 - Microstructure and mechan…
CHEMMAT 121, Section 1 - Deformation and structure…