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SAQS 2018 20
Terms in this set (17)
Describe the physiological cues that serve to activate the renin-angiotensin system.
- Decreased blood pressure
- Decreased GFR
- decreased NaCl transport
- Macula desna of distal tubule
- CV control centre
- Sympathetic activity
- Granular cells of afferent arteriole produce renin enzyme
- ANG 2 in plasma
- Which taps in the NHE system
Briefly discuss THREE (3) actions of angiotensin II that act to raise blood pressure and retain water and salt in the body.
The effect of angiotensin II on vasoconstriction takes place in systemic arterioles. Here, angiotensin II binds to G protein-coupled receptors, leading to a secondary messenger cascade that results in potent arteriolar vasoconstriction. This acts to increase total peripheral resistance, causing an increase in blood pressure.
Outline the biochemical steps involved in generating the active peptide, angiotensin II.
angiotensin system is activated in the cardiac myocyte, which stimulates cardiac cell growth through protein kinase C.
Fibrotic lung disease
Thickened alveolar membrane slows gas exchange. Loss of lung compliance may decrease alveolar ventilation
excess fluid in the lungs
A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.
List the FOUR (4) basic processes of the digestive system, and briefly define EACH of them.
1. ingestion, the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food,
2. nutrient absorption,
3. elimination of indigestible food.
4. The mechanical breakdown of food occurs via muscular contractions called peristalsis and segmentation
Explain briefly the effects of insulin and glucagon on glycogen synthesis and breakdown, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and blood glucose levels.
- Stores glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis) which it can breakdown when required (glycogenolysis) and release to the rest of the body
- Can synthesis glucose from amino acids (gluconeogenesis)
- Can synthesis ketones, from fatty acids and amino acids (ketogenesis) as an alternative energy source when carbohydrates are scarce
- Can synthesise lipids form glucose and amino acids
Essential nutrients are those that our cells require but cannot make, and thus they must be present in the diet. Some amino acids and some fatty acids are essential. Knowing this, comment on the likely impact of extreme diets that eliminate fats or proteins on the health and/or fitness of an adult
fatty acids are esstential fro hormone production. without aququet hormone production normal bodly activies would be very difficult
Provide the equation that describes the FOUR (4) variables that regulate mean arterial pressure. Define all terms used.
MAP = (CO × SVR) + CVP
Describe how these factors change in response to exercise.
uring exercise, the cardiac output increases more than the total resistance decreases, so the mean arterial pressure usually increases by a small amount.
Describe how these factors change when you stand up.
Mean arterial pressure typically increases upon standing; however, an insufficient increase or a decline in mean arterial pressure upon standing may result in decreased cerebral perfusion.
Name the THREE (3) transporters at positions 1, 2 and 3, and briefly explain how sodium ions and glucose are being transported at the various points and the forces involved.
1. Na+ glucose symporter brings glucose into cell against its gradient using energy stored in Na+ concentration gradient
2. Glut transporters transfers glucose to ECF by facilitated diffusion
3. Na+, K, ATPase pumps Na+ out of the cell, keeping ICF Na+ concentration low
The renin-angiotensin system generates the small peptide hormone angiotensin II. Describe FIVE (5) actions of angiotensin II that serve to raise blood pressure and retain water and salt in the body
Decrease in Cardiac output/ decrease arterial pressure (reduced tissue perfusion)
- Arterial baroreceptor reflex
- Incr. Hr, rapid response
- Activation of autonomic response
- Activation of renin/angiotensin system
- Vasoconstriction, inotrope, antidiuretic
- Stimulation of aldosterone release (Ang II)
- Na retention in kidney (salivary glands, sweat glands, colon)
- Stimulation of vasopressin release
- Increased water resorption in the medullary collecting duct in kidney
- Increased erythropoietin production
- Production of rbc
Describe the THREE (3) cell types responsible for modulating gastric secretions, the substances that they secrete and the functions of the secretions.
1. Pariental cells
- Secretes gastric acid
2. Chief cells
- Secretes pepsin and gastric lipase
3. G cells
Explain the TWO (2) main types of metabolic reactions and the differences between them.
- Catabolic reactions break down larger molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins form ingested food, into smaller parts
- Anabolic reactions or biosynthetic reactions, synthesize lager molecules
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