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Chp 10 EXAM 3
Terms in this set (13)
What are the special senses? What are the somatic senses? List the specific types of sensation under the each.
Special sense: smell, hearing, , see, balance, taste
General: temperature, touch, proprioception, pain, pressure
Describe each of the following types of receptors, indicating what sensation it detects and giving an example of where it can be found in the body: thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
Chemoreceptor- respond to chemical ligands
Thermoreceptors- respond to temperature
Mechanoreceptors- touch and hearing
Photoreceptors- vison to light
What is the 'receptor potential'? What leads to the generation of a receptor potential, and what is the result?
Receptor potential (Graded potential)- change in sensory receptor membrane potential caused by a stimulus and can lead to a action potential.
Define receptive field. Explain how receptive fields and neuron convergence can increase or decrease the sensitivity of an area of skin.
Receptive field- physical area where a stimuli activates a neuron.
Smaller fields+ more neurons= More sensitivity
If receptive fields and neurons convergence, it will LOSE sensitivity.
Where does sensory information go upon entering the brain? Through what central region of the brain is all but olfaction ultimately sent to? Does sensation end there?
Goes to thalamus and then to the Primary somatic sensory cortex (Post-central gyrus/ sensory homoculus)
Explain perceptual threshold, and habituation.
Perceptual threshold- level of stimulus necessary for you to be aware of a particular sensation
(Sometimes you can experience a change perceptual threshold when you forgot you are listening to music)
Habituation- decreased perception through inhibitory modulation
Explain how sensation information is detected and interpreted, including determining the stimulus modality, intensity, location, and duration. What is a labeled line?
Modality: which sensory neuron are being activated and where does the neurons terminate in brain (Labeled line coding)- a certain stimulus is paired when a receptor goes off
Location: which receptive field is being activated
(Lateral inhibition) dominate neuron inhibits others to have a more specific perception
Intensity: the number of receptors activated and how much frequency
Duration of stimulus (Phasic or Tonic)
Explain the phenomenon of adaptation. What are the benefits of phasic and tonic receptors?
Sensory adaptation: reduction insensitivity to the stimulus
Tonic Receptors: slowly adapting receptors that fire rapidly when first activated, then slow and maintain their firing as long as the stimulus is present.
(Helps the body understand that the stimulus has to be monitored because it may affect the body in a negative way.
Phasic Receptors: rapidly adapting reports that fire when they first receive a stimulus but stop firing if the strength of stimulus remains constant
(allows the body to ignore info that has been evaluated an non-life-threatening)
Describe the basic pathways through which somatic sensations travel from stimulus to perception. Where is the somatosensory cortex? What determines if sensations arrive there? How does the homunculus help us to understand how the brain interprets somatic sensation?
Primary sensory: Receptors for somatic senses are located in skin and viscera.
Second Sensory: Nociception (Pain), course touch, temperture cross the midline of spimal cord and then ascend to the brain
Fine touch, proprioception and vibration go up and cross the midline of the medulla
Synapse with third neurons in thalamus and sensations are perceived in the primary somatic sensory cortex where the sensory homunculus helps us understand because certain areas represent certain areas of the body
Describe the different thermoreceptors, including their anatomy and adequate stimuli. Why do cold stimuli often also feel painful?
Cold receptors and warm receptors. They become painful when they exceed their range. Cold gets painful when it goes out of the range of 20-40 C because tissue damage is greater
Identify different pain stimuli and the purposes of pain-relaying neurons.
Nociceptors= Pain receptors
1. Fast pain- sharp and quick from myelinated fibers
2. Slow pain- dull but longer pain from unmyelinated
Explain why visceral pain is often mis-interpreted as coming from a somatic location (i.e., referred pain).
Due to referred pain. Visceral and somatic sensory pain inputs converge on single ascending tract, brain isn't able to disguise between the two so it just assumes the pain is coming from somatic sensory regions
Briefly describe how our perception of pain can be modulated.
Gate control theory- AB fibers synapse on the inhibitory interneurons to exchange the inhibitory activity
Analgesic drugs (opioids such as morphine)- slow the transmission of pain signals from site of injury
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