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APUSH Chapter 19
America & World War I. General ideas, important groups, and major events.
Terms in this set (42)
The Americanization of the World (1902)
W. T. Stead's book predicting that America will rise to the global stage and become a world power. However, America would not use the traditional empire building strategy of military and territory, but instead America will spread influence through economic trade and spreading of culture. His prediction was accurate.
Open Door Policy
Originally proposed in 1899 to establish free trade to China, it became the basis of American foreign relations for the first two decades of the 1900s. Basically, America saw the entire world as a potential market, and all countries should have equal opportunity in it - no country should restrict others in "the flow" of trade.
Wilson's idea when it came to foreign policy. He believed that freedom would increase if America actively intervened in countries following its own interests. Using American power to spread democracy and liberty throughout the world.
An addition to the Monroe Doctrine which stated it was America's right to intervene in the western hemisphere to promote its own interests.
Presidents Taft's idea to use economics to pursue political interests. Expanding businesses to other countries, investing heavily into foreign economies, and just building strong ties with countries. Use the economy to spread political influence.
Wilson's idea which called for America to leave other countries alone because of a moral standard. However, he still believed that America should be the spreaders of democracy; therefore, he led more military interventions than any other president in history.
Main causes of the World War I
M: Militarism. European countries had this fascination with the glory of warfare, and it was their go-to strategy to deal with all their problems. So war > diplomacy.
A: Alliances. There was an intricate set of alliances in place. As one country got pulled in war, that country also dragged several more into the war, resulting in a domino effect.
I: Imperialism. A hostile rivalry had developed between countries as they vied for territory abroad.
N: Nationalism. The same as excessive patriotism (jingoism), people held a strong belief that their country was the best and was always right.
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was the spark of everything.
Death tolls in World War I
- About 10 million soldiers died & 20 million more civilians.
- Following the war, a widespread famine and flu epidemic killed 20-40 million more.
At the onset of World War I, America declared itself to be neutral because, initially, the American people were divided as to who to support. However, as the war progressed we began to sway towards the Allies' side against Germany.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a Germany submarine on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
A message sent by Germany to Mexico convincing Mexico to declare war on America, promising that Germany will cede the land that the U.S had taken earlier back to Mexico.
Declaration of War
In April 1917, Congress declared war against Germany by a very large margin. 82-6 in the Senate, and 373-50 in the House.
The Fourteen Points
Wilson's vision for the end of the war designed to keep peace in the future. Some of the points called for self-determination, free trade, free seas, a League of Nations, and open diplomacy.
War Industries Board
An agency set up by the federal government to streamline production for efficiency and control the prices of manufactured goods for the war effort. Directed by Bernard Baruch.
War Labor Board
An agency made up of members from the government and unions (AFL), advocated for a minimum wage, eight hour work day, and the right to form unions.
Direct by Herbert Hoover, it directed, coordinated, and mobilized all the resources in food production. It also rationed food, so that soldiers could get enough food during the war.
Committee of Public Information
Created in 1917 and headed by George Creel. The committee was created to turn public opinion in favor of the war effort, it embarked on a widespread, pro-war propaganda campaign. A famous technique was comparing the Germans to the barbaric Huns.
18th Amendment (1919)
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Prohibition.
19th Amendment (1919)
Women get the right to vote, a victory for women suffrage groups.
Selective Service Act (1917)
This law proclaimed that all men age 21-30, 24 million men, were required to draft for the military. As a result, the army numbers swelled from 300,000 to 5 million.
Sedition and Espionage Acts (1917 & 1918)
The government saw these two acts as necessary to guarantee security, despite the violation of civil rights. The acts made it illegal to slow the war effort, help the enemies, or criticize the government.
American Protection League
A private organization that encouraged people to spy on their neighbors; even opened people's mail, tapped phones, and pried into medical records of suspected radicals.
The Dictionary of Races of People
Published by the US Immigration Commission, it ranked immigrants in different tiers, indicating the attitude regarding the race problem. Anglo-Saxons were, obviously, ranked at the top.
Intelligence Quotient & Eugenics
These two scientific studies and concepts were used to justify the race inequality; claiming that science says that a certain race is better than another.
The want to create one national culture, but it essentially really was "everyone become anglo-saxon"
The Great Migration
The mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North because of the promised industrial freedom in the North. However, blacks were disappointed by the conditions of industrial labor, and racial violence ran rampant in the North.
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP and protested for equality for blacks (no more segregation). Leader was W.E. Debois.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The NAACP spawned out of the Niagara Movement, it sought for more economic opportunities for blacks and the end of segregation.
Strikes of 1919
It began with a major strike in Seattle, and spawned the largest wave of labor upheaval of the era. 4 million workers went on strike such as Boston policemen. However, the coalition of employers and government proved to be more successful in suppressing these strikes.
Great Steel Strike
The single largest strike of the era occurring in Chicago in 1919. 365,000 workers organized by the AFL and IWW struck for higher wages, but the strike collapsed in 1920 because employers had turned public opinion against the strikers, labeling them as communists and unpatriotic.
1917 revolution which drives Czar Nicholas II from power. In the ensuing political chaos, Lenin's party wins and he begins to nationalize everything in Russia and withdraws from World War I.
Changing something from private to state ownership or public ownership. In the case of Russia (Soviet Union), it was state ownership.
The Red Scare
1919-1920. Sometimes dubbed as the anti-communist crusades, it was characterized by a widespread fear of America undergoing a revolution towards communism as a result of the Russian revolution.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer carried out raids against people considered to be radicals (strikers) that are known as the Palmer Raids. Infamously known because of they were pretty much like the anti-communist crusades and its violent suppression of civil liberties. It ended up with 5,000 people being arrested.
Versailles Peace Conference
A peace conference held in Paris to negotiate a treaty to end World War I. When Wilson arrived into Paris, he was cheered on by the crowds because his Fourteen Points were extremely popular amongst the people.
In addition, Wilson's envoy to Paris was seen as a partisan move, as only one Republican was invited to go to Paris.
The major players at the Versailles Peace Conference. Wilson from America, David Lloyd George from Britain, George Clemenceau from France, and Vittorio Orlando from Italy. Britain and France especially disliked Wilson's Fourteen Points because they were still salty from the war, and wanted to punish Germany for the costs.
Treaty of Versailles
The result of the Versailles Peace Conference. It was an incredibly harsh document that only rubbed salt in Germany's wounds, requiring Germany to pay $33 billion in reparations. In addition, it divided the Austro-Hungarian empire and formed the League of Nations.
Treaty of Versailles Debate
Wilson's move during the peace conferences were not well received at home, especially, by Republicans.
A position firmly held by Wilson and his democratic supporters. He wanted to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, claiming that America needs to be active internationally and spread its influence worldwide. Wilson also wanted America to join the League of Nations and become a world leader through it.
Faction led by Henry Cabot Lodge. They would accept the Treaty of Versailles if reservations, or changes, were made to some parts of the treaty, especially Article X of the League of Nation Covenant. This way, they claimed, would allow America to still play a international power, but America would be able to remain as a sovereign country; deciding whether it should help or not in a country's affairs.
Senators, mostly Republicans, who opposed the Treaty of Versailles regardless of any reservations or not. They did not want America to play any role as a world power; they were extreme isolationists.
Rejection of Treaty
The Treaty of Versailles ultimately failed to pass, unable to gain a 2/3 majority in the Senate. Wilson refused to cooperate with the Reservationists, and the Irreconcilables would vote against the treaty regardless.
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