AP U.S. Government Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (31)
Gideon vs. Wainwright
Right to a lawyer in a state trial, given by the 6th.
Roe vs. Wade
This case used the implied right to privacy to restrict government interference with abortion.
Clinton vs. New York
This case ruled that the line-item veto violated the seperatin of powers doctrine.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
This case established the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Brown vs. Board of Education
This case overruled the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Established a broad view of the commerce clause when a federal Steamboat license trumped a New York state license.
Scott vs. Sandford
Justice Taney's opinion in this case stated that slave owners could take their slaves anywhere in the U.S. and that slaves had no rights to be in federal court.
U.S. vs. Lopez
The Court held that Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in school.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Court ruled that congress did have authority to charter bank, citing the necessary and proper clause.
Fletcher vs. Peck
John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights.
Baker vs. Carr
The Supreme Court ruling that all state districts must be equal in population., required that voting district needed to be reapportioned.
Reynolds vs. Sims
The Supreme Court ruling that all state districts must be equal in population.
Mapp vs. Ohio
Incorporated a portion of the 4th Amendment by establishing that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used at trial, forbids unreasonable search and seizures.
Engel vs. Vitale
Case that said organized prayer is unconstitutional in school.
Texas vs. Johnson
Ruled that a person has a constitutional right to burn the american flag.
Miranda vs. Arizona
Your rights must be read to you..., 5th, 6th and 14th amend. confession was illegally, must be warned prior that he has a right to remain silent and other rights that are given to you.
Furman vs. Georgia
Limited the use of the death penalty based on the 8th Amendment.
Schneck vs. U.S.
This speech was not constitutionally protected because it posed a "clear and present danger" to the country, thus creating the "clear and present danger" test to apply to First Amendment right of Speech.
Tinker vs. Des Moines
Supreme Court case that stated that students do not lose their freedom of speech rights in high school. Students wore black arm bands to protest the Vietnam War.
New York Times vs. U.S.
The Government must strongly justify any abridgment of a newspaper's freedom of speech, as long as it does not threaten national security.
U.S. vs. Nixon
The Court decided that the President must hand over incriminating tapes because Presidential power is not above the law.
University of California Regents vs. Bakke
Race may be taken into account when allowing students to higher education institutions as long as it is not the primary reason for allowing a student in.
Buckley vs. Valeo
The Court Upheld a federal law which set limits on campaign contributions, but ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech, and struck down portions of the law.
New York Times vs. Sullivan
Court ruled that libelous statements made about public officials with actual malice is illegal.
Barron vs. Baltimore
The 1833 decision holding that the bill of rights restrained only the national government, not states.
Griswold vs. Connecticut
A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Gitlow vs. New York
Incorporated 1st Amendment right of Free Speech to the states, using the 14th Amendment.
Bush vs. Gore
The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation statdards in different counties violated the equal protection clause.
Miller vs. California
Court held that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment and defined obscene material as those that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, find, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest; that depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and that, taken as a whole, lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Lemon vs. Kurtzman
For a law to be considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, the law must have a legitimate secular purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an excessive entanglement of government and religion.