PS354 Chapter 5

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The Innocence Project completed an analysis of the first 150 cases in which a previously incarcerated person was exonerated by DNA and found that a majority of these cases involved
Mistaken eyewitness identification
Sometimes police just look for evidence that implicates a suspect that has been identified by an eyewitness and stop investigation any other leads. This situation is an illustration of
Confirmation bias
Those wrongly imprisoned are typically well compensated for the time they spent in prison
False.
If a weapon is present when a crime is committed, a witness will tend to pay more attention to the weapon than to other things (e.g., the face of a perpetrator). What is this effect called?
weapon focus effect
What is the correct order or processes in perception and memory (first to last)?
Encoding, storage, retrieval
During an extremely stressful situation, how is encoding affected?
It is often incomplete
A robbery occurs at al liquor store. The clerk identifies the defendant in a police lineup. The defendant claims he had been in the store earlier to get change but had not robbed the store. If the defendant is telling the truth, the clerk's identification would reflect
Unconscious transference
The other race effect refers to the idea that
eyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing and identifying members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another race or ethnic group.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding how the age of an eyewitness tends to impact lineup identifications?
Older adults and young children are more likely to make a mistaken identification in a lineup in which the perpetrator is absent than young and middle-aged adults
Researchers recommend that a person conducting a lineup should tell the witness that the culprit may or may not be present in the lineup. Without this instruction, what tends to happen?
All of the above ( False identifications tend to increase; the eyewitness may feel that they must choose someone; the eyewitness tends to choose the person who most resembles the person they witnessed)
What is true about witness confidence?
Confirming feedback from the lineup administrator tends to increase witness confidence; Seeing the chosen suspect undergo a trial tends to increase witness confidence; Hearing that another witness made the same lineup choice tends to increase witness confidence;
Which of the following is included in the Justice Department guidelines for conducting lineups and photo spreads?
All of the above ( Asking the witness to provide a statement of certainty before the lineup administrator provides any feedback; use unbiased lineup instructions; use similar looking fillers in a lineup; use sequential, not simultaneous presentation, in a lineup)
According to research presented in Chapter 5, what tends to happen when hypnotized subjects are asked leading questions?
They make more errors than they would if they were just hypnotized or just asked leading questions.
Loftus (1974) gave subjects a description of an armed robbery. 18% presented with only circumstantial evidence convicted the defendant. When an eyewitness identification was provided in addition to the circumstantial evidence, what percentage convicted the defendant?
72% of the jurors convicted him
Which of the following was found by Brewer and Burke (2002) to have a strong impact on a jurors verdict decisions?
The witness level of confidence
Cross-examining eyewitnesses provides one of the safeguards against mistaken identification. According to Chapter 5, which of the following is needed for the cross-examination of eyewitnesses to be effective?
All of the above (Attorneys must have access to information regarding the conditions under which the crime was committed; attorneys must have knowledge of the factors that can influence eyewitness performance; Judges must be aware of the factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness memory because they decide to what extent cross examination can be used)
What recommendation advocated by the Supreme Court in Neil v. Biggers (1972) would psychologists most disagree with when jurors evaluate eyewitness testimony for its accuracy?
Jurors should consider the level of certainty demonstrated by the eyewitness at the time of identification.
An unconscious process in which victims of abuse escape the full impact of an event by psychologically detaching themselves from it is called
Dissociation
In delayed reporting statutes, abuse survivors can bring suit against their alleged attackers
within three years from the date of recovering the memory.
How did sociologist Richard Ofshe check the accuracy of Paul Ingram's memory?
He fabricated an event and then asked Ingram to recall it.