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52 terms

Autonomic Nervous System part 2

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What enzymes can destroy norepinephrine and epinephrine?
MAO, COMT
What enzyme can destroy acetylcholine?
Acetylcholinesterase
What are the 3 ways that the neurotransmitter can be removed from the synaptic cleft?
Diffusion into tissues, reuptake, and enzymes
What major tissues are innervated by the SANS and the PANS?
Heart, lungs, eye, digestive system, salivary glands, excretory system, blood vessels
If the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart, what slows it down?
The parasympathetic nervous system
Which system is responsible for "fight or flight", SANS or PANS?
Sympathetic
What is the neurotransmitter released from postganglionic terminal synapses of the SANS?
NE
Where is the neurotransmitter NE stored?
Stored in terminal synapses
What are the receptors of the SANS called that are located on the effector tissues?
Alpha and Beta
What class of drugs does NE belong to?
catecholamines
What other drugs belong in the class of catecholamines?
Catecholamines include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
where is NE made and stored?
in the adrenal glands and stored in the terminal synapse
Where is epinephrine made and what does it stimulate when released?
Epinephrine is made in the Adrenal glands and in times of "fight or flight", it is released into the blood stream and stimulates Alpha and Beta Receptors of the sympathic nervous system
What are the effects of the alpha 1 and 2 receptors of the sympathice NS?
Constriction of most BV (capillaries)
dilation of pupil(mydriasis)
Slows SLUD
Constriction of sphincters(anal and urinary)
Glycogenolysis
What are the effects of beta1 receptors of the sympathetic NS?
Increase heart rate and force
Slows SLUD
What are the effects of the beta 2 receptors of the sympathetic NS?
Increase heart rate and force
Dilate coronary arteries to allow more oxygen to get to heart muscle
Dilates BV in skeletal muscle to allow them to get more oxygen
Dilation of Bronchi of lungs via relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
Slows SLUD
Which receptors cause constriction of most small BV (capillaries)?
Alpha 1 and 2
Which receptors cause dilation of the pupil, Alpha or Beta?
Alpha
What is mydriasis?
Dilation of the pupil
Which receptors cause constriction of the sphincter muscles?
Alpha 1 and 2
Which receptors cause slowing of SLUD?
Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2
Which receptors cause dilation of coronary arteries and blood vessels to skeletal muscle?
Beta 2
Which receptors cause bronchial dilation?
Beta 2
Which receptors cause increase in heart rate and force of contraction?
Beta 1 and 2
Which receptors cause glycogen to be converted into glucose?
Alpha receptors
What are the receptors for the Parasympathetic Nervous System called?
Nicotinic or Muscarinic
What are the receptors called for the Sympathetic Nervous System?
Nicotinic or Alpha and Beta
What do the Sympathomimetic agents, Adrenergic agonists of the sympathetic nervous system do?
Stimulate or help sympathetic nervous system
(Turn on Sympathetic NS)
What do Sympatholytic agents, Adrenergic blocking agents of the Sympatheitc NS do?
Block sympathetic nervous system
What do Antiadrenergic,Adrenergic antagonists of the Sympathetic nervuos system do?
block the sympathetic NS
What do Parasympathomimetic agents, cholinergic agonists of the parasympathetic nervous system do?
Turns on Parasympathetic NS
What do Parasympatholytic agents, Cholinergic blocking agents of the parasympathetic nervous system do?
block the parasympathetic NS
What do Anticholinergic, Cholinergic antagonist of the parasympathetic NS
Blocks the para sympathetic nervous system
Cholinergic blocking agent would have what effect on salivary glands?
Slow production of saliva
Sympathomimetic agent on the eyes?
Dilate eyes
Antiadrenergic on lungs?
Bronchoconstriction
Adrenergic on capillaries in body?
Vasoconstriction
Cholinergic agonist would have what effect on salivary glands?
Increase saliva
Sympatholytic agent on eyes?
Constriction of pupils
Adrenergic agent on lungs?
Bronchodilation
Adrenergic blocking agent on coronary arteries?
Constriction of coronary arteries
Sympathomimetic to capillaries of body?
Vasoconstriction
Adrenergic affect to coronary arteries?
Vasodilation
The drug epinephrine can stim. what receptors?
Both Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2
The drug albuterol can stim. what receptors?
Beta 2
The drug Phenylephrine can stim. what receptors?
Alpha 1 and 2
What are some of the Clinical Uses of adrenergic agonists?
1.To increase blood pressure
Ex: epinephrine stimulates alpha and beta receptors
2.To cause local hemostasis
Ex: epinephrine used in Local Anesthetics stimulates Alpha receptors
3.Asthmatic attacks
albuterol stimulates Beta 2 receptors in lung and bronchioles dilate
What drug can be given to block a muscarinic receptor?
Atropine
What drug blocks all other nicotinic receptors?
Hexamethonium- not an approved drug because it has lead to patient's death
Why would you not want to give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to a patient with glaucoma?
Would increase ocular pressure
Why not give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to patient with Prostate hypertrophy?
Would increase urinary retention exacerbating the problem
what are the Clinical Uses of cholinergic antagonists?
Preop meds to dry the mouth and bronchioles up
Atropine
Decrease GI motility
Antidiarrheal
Lonox, Lomotil