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What enzymes can destroy norepinephrine and epinephrine?


What enzyme can destroy acetylcholine?


What are the 3 ways that the neurotransmitter can be removed from the synaptic cleft?

Diffusion into tissues, reuptake, and enzymes

What major tissues are innervated by the SANS and the PANS?

Heart, lungs, eye, digestive system, salivary glands, excretory system, blood vessels

If the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart, what slows it down?

The parasympathetic nervous system

Which system is responsible for "fight or flight", SANS or PANS?


What is the neurotransmitter released from postganglionic terminal synapses of the SANS?


Where is the neurotransmitter NE stored?

Stored in terminal synapses

What are the receptors of the SANS called that are located on the effector tissues?

Alpha and Beta

What class of drugs does NE belong to?


What other drugs belong in the class of catecholamines?

Catecholamines include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine

where is NE made and stored?

in the adrenal glands and stored in the terminal synapse

Where is epinephrine made and what does it stimulate when released?

Epinephrine is made in the Adrenal glands and in times of "fight or flight", it is released into the blood stream and stimulates Alpha and Beta Receptors of the sympathic nervous system

What are the effects of the alpha 1 and 2 receptors of the sympathice NS?

Constriction of most BV (capillaries)
dilation of pupil(mydriasis)
Slows SLUD
Constriction of sphincters(anal and urinary)

What are the effects of beta1 receptors of the sympathetic NS?

Increase heart rate and force
Slows SLUD

What are the effects of the beta 2 receptors of the sympathetic NS?

Increase heart rate and force
Dilate coronary arteries to allow more oxygen to get to heart muscle
Dilates BV in skeletal muscle to allow them to get more oxygen
Dilation of Bronchi of lungs via relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
Slows SLUD

Which receptors cause constriction of most small BV (capillaries)?

Alpha 1 and 2

Which receptors cause dilation of the pupil, Alpha or Beta?


What is mydriasis?

Dilation of the pupil

Which receptors cause constriction of the sphincter muscles?

Alpha 1 and 2

Which receptors cause slowing of SLUD?

Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2

Which receptors cause dilation of coronary arteries and blood vessels to skeletal muscle?

Beta 2

Which receptors cause bronchial dilation?

Beta 2

Which receptors cause increase in heart rate and force of contraction?

Beta 1 and 2

Which receptors cause glycogen to be converted into glucose?

Alpha receptors

What are the receptors for the Parasympathetic Nervous System called?

Nicotinic or Muscarinic

What are the receptors called for the Sympathetic Nervous System?

Nicotinic or Alpha and Beta

What do the Sympathomimetic agents, Adrenergic agonists of the sympathetic nervous system do?

Stimulate or help sympathetic nervous system
(Turn on Sympathetic NS)

What do Sympatholytic agents, Adrenergic blocking agents of the Sympatheitc NS do?

Block sympathetic nervous system

What do Antiadrenergic,Adrenergic antagonists of the Sympathetic nervuos system do?

block the sympathetic NS

What do Parasympathomimetic agents, cholinergic agonists of the parasympathetic nervous system do?

Turns on Parasympathetic NS

What do Parasympatholytic agents, Cholinergic blocking agents of the parasympathetic nervous system do?

block the parasympathetic NS

What do Anticholinergic, Cholinergic antagonist of the parasympathetic NS

Blocks the para sympathetic nervous system

Cholinergic blocking agent would have what effect on salivary glands?

Slow production of saliva

Sympathomimetic agent on the eyes?

Dilate eyes

Antiadrenergic on lungs?


Adrenergic on capillaries in body?


Cholinergic agonist would have what effect on salivary glands?

Increase saliva

Sympatholytic agent on eyes?

Constriction of pupils

Adrenergic agent on lungs?


Adrenergic blocking agent on coronary arteries?

Constriction of coronary arteries

Sympathomimetic to capillaries of body?


Adrenergic affect to coronary arteries?


The drug epinephrine can stim. what receptors?

Both Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2

The drug albuterol can stim. what receptors?

Beta 2

The drug Phenylephrine can stim. what receptors?

Alpha 1 and 2

What are some of the Clinical Uses of adrenergic agonists?

1.To increase blood pressure
Ex: epinephrine stimulates alpha and beta receptors
2.To cause local hemostasis
Ex: epinephrine used in Local Anesthetics stimulates Alpha receptors
3.Asthmatic attacks
albuterol stimulates Beta 2 receptors in lung and bronchioles dilate

What drug can be given to block a muscarinic receptor?


What drug blocks all other nicotinic receptors?

Hexamethonium- not an approved drug because it has lead to patient's death

Why would you not want to give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to a patient with glaucoma?

Would increase ocular pressure

Why not give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to patient with Prostate hypertrophy?

Would increase urinary retention exacerbating the problem

what are the Clinical Uses of cholinergic antagonists?

Preop meds to dry the mouth and bronchioles up
Decrease GI motility
Lonox, Lomotil

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