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What are the 3 ways that the neurotransmitter can be removed from the synaptic cleft?
Diffusion into tissues, reuptake, and enzymes
What major tissues are innervated by the SANS and the PANS?
Heart, lungs, eye, digestive system, salivary glands, excretory system, blood vessels
If the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart, what slows it down?
The parasympathetic nervous system
What other drugs belong in the class of catecholamines?
Catecholamines include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
Where is epinephrine made and what does it stimulate when released?
Epinephrine is made in the Adrenal glands and in times of "fight or flight", it is released into the blood stream and stimulates Alpha and Beta Receptors of the sympathic nervous system
What are the effects of the alpha 1 and 2 receptors of the sympathice NS?
Constriction of most BV (capillaries)
dilation of pupil(mydriasis)
Constriction of sphincters(anal and urinary)
What are the effects of beta1 receptors of the sympathetic NS?
Increase heart rate and force
What are the effects of the beta 2 receptors of the sympathetic NS?
Increase heart rate and force
Dilate coronary arteries to allow more oxygen to get to heart muscle
Dilates BV in skeletal muscle to allow them to get more oxygen
Dilation of Bronchi of lungs via relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
What do the Sympathomimetic agents, Adrenergic agonists of the sympathetic nervous system do?
Stimulate or help sympathetic nervous system
(Turn on Sympathetic NS)
What do Sympatholytic agents, Adrenergic blocking agents of the Sympatheitc NS do?
Block sympathetic nervous system
What do Antiadrenergic,Adrenergic antagonists of the Sympathetic nervuos system do?
block the sympathetic NS
What do Parasympathomimetic agents, cholinergic agonists of the parasympathetic nervous system do?
Turns on Parasympathetic NS
What do Parasympatholytic agents, Cholinergic blocking agents of the parasympathetic nervous system do?
block the parasympathetic NS
What do Anticholinergic, Cholinergic antagonist of the parasympathetic NS
Blocks the para sympathetic nervous system
What are some of the Clinical Uses of adrenergic agonists?
1.To increase blood pressure
Ex: epinephrine stimulates alpha and beta receptors
2.To cause local hemostasis
Ex: epinephrine used in Local Anesthetics stimulates Alpha receptors
albuterol stimulates Beta 2 receptors in lung and bronchioles dilate
What drug blocks all other nicotinic receptors?
Hexamethonium- not an approved drug because it has lead to patient's death
Why would you not want to give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to a patient with glaucoma?
Would increase ocular pressure
Why not give Cholinergic Antagonists drugs to patient with Prostate hypertrophy?
Would increase urinary retention exacerbating the problem
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