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Human A&P 2 Midterm (Ch. 15-16)
Terms in this set (85)
Blood from the face and scalp is drained by the
external jugular vein
The mechanism that ensures the volume of blood discharged from the heart is equal to the volume entering its chambers is ______ law of the heart.
The pain of angina pectoris comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the
The right atrium receives blood directly from
the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
Nitric oxide is important in this situation because it
relaxes the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall.
The structures that contain chemoreceptors that detect blood concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen are
Which artery is incorrectly matched to its location?
Thyrocervical arteries; thymus.
Blood flow to the right side of the heart muscle decreases due to constriction of the _____, and decreased blood flow to the heart tissue can result in _____.
right coronary artery; ischemia
An abnormally slow heart rate is termed
Impulses that the vagus nerve carries to the heart
are parasympathetic and decrease heart rate.
Which of the following is true about the heart?
The apex end points downward at about the 5th intercostal space.
Arterial systolic pressure is most closely associated with
The skeleton of the heart consists of
fibrous connective tissue encircling the atrioventricular orifices.
Listening with a stethoscope just to the right near the tip of the sternum, sounds come most distinctly from the
The radial and ulnar veins merge to form the _______ vein.
Which of the following might serve as a secondary pacemaker for the heart?
Both AV node and Purkinje fibers
Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by
increasing peripheral resistance.
The normal pacemaker of the heart is the
Which of the following is not a normal response to physical exercise?
Increased blood flow to the abdominal viscera
Marjorie suffers from phlebitis. She has
inflammation of her veins.
Small areas of the myocardium contracting chaotically is called
Which of the following layers of the heart and their functions are correctly matched?
Myocardium-muscular contractions that force blood out of the heart
In an ECG pattern, the T wave is caused by
repolarization of ventricular muscle fibers.
The pulmonary trunk divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries about __ centimeters above its origin.
When the ventricular walls contract,
the mitral and tricuspid valves close.
Which of the following correctly matches the valve to its function?
Mitral valve-permits one-way blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle
Because net inward pressure in venular capillary ends is less than net outward pressure at the arteriolar ends of capillaries
more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns.
Which of the following supplies blood to parts of the intestinal tract?
Superior mesenteric artery
Once cells in the SA node reach threshold,
an action potential is triggered
When venous pressure is too low, ____________ stimulate smooth muscles in the walls of veins to contract.
In an ECG pattern, the PQ interval indicates how long it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the
SA node through the AV node.
When smooth muscles in the walls of the veins are stimulated to contract
blood pressure increases.
The longest vein in the body is the
great saphenous vein.
Water and dissolved substances leave the arteriole end of a capillary due to ____, and enter the venule end of a capillary due to ______.
hydrostatic pressure being higher than osmotic pressure; osmotic pressure being higher than hydrostatic pressure
The correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses is
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
Plasma proteins in capillaries help to
maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs?
Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve
The loose-fitting sac around the heart is the
Which of the following is due to an aging cardiovascular system?
The tunica interna thickens
Which type of blood vessel holds the greatest volume of blood?
Which of the following waves of an ECG pattern is/are correctly described?
P wave-depolarization of atria
In mitral valve prolapse, the mitral valve
bulges into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
Sympathetic stimulation increases
The blood pressure in the large systemic arteries is greatest during
Which of the following is not a branch of the aorta?
Pulse pressure is calculated by
subtracting diastolic pressure from systolic pressure.
The effect on the heart of excess potassium ion concentration usually is
decreased rate and decreased force of contraction.
The celiac artery provides blood to the
liver and spleen.
Which of the following is most life threatening?
In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused by
depolarization of atrial muscle fibers.
Atrial natriuretic factor is a peptide hormone that
all of the above
Which of the following gases does endothelium release?
The mononuclear phagocytic system includes
monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils.
A drug based on a monoclonal antibody differs from the immune response in that
all of the antibodies descend from one B lymphocyte.
B cells divide and differentiate into _________ which produce and secrete antibodies.
A vaccine produces its effects by
stimulating a primary immune response.
Following a primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells are
both B cells and T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells destroy
cancer cells and virus-containing cells.
The primary functions of lymph include
returning proteins to the bloodstream and transporting foreign particles to the lymph nodes.
Heart valve cells can be damaged through
The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the
thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct.
The tissues of the spleen are called
red and white pulp
The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing a disease is
naturally acquired active immunity.
Cytotoxic T cells destroy their target cells by releasing perforin, which cuts holes in
Tissue fluid is ______ and lymph is ______.
forced out of blood plasma and generally lacking in proteins; absorbed into lymph capillaries
T lymphocytes mature in the thymus in response to
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are
lymphocytes and macrophages.
The region of a lymph node through which blood vessels and nerves pass is called the
The functions of the lymphatic system do not include
transporting hormones to intestinal smooth muscle.
The most active phagocytic cells in circulating blood are
neutrophils and monocytes.
Interferon is a group of hormonelike peptides that cells produce in response to
Which of the following are cytokines?
Colony stimulating factors, interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor
The antibodies produced in allergic reactions
belong to the immunoglobulin E group.
T lymphocytes are responsible for
Foreign particles that are injected into the skin enter the lymphatic system
produce antibody molecules.
The anti-Rh factor is an example of an
Lymph nodes are grouped throughout the body except in the
central nervous system.
resembles a large lymph node divided into lobules.
The supratrochlear lymph nodes are located near the
_________ initiate(s) a cascade effect in response to foreign proteins in the body.
The complement system
In the cellular immune response
T cells attach directly to antigens and destroy them.
The most abundant type of immunoglobulin is
Injections of gamma globulin are sometimes given to provide
artificially acquired passive immunity.
The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from the
upper limb and mammary gland.
Recommended textbook explanations
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
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