Social Psych Exam 2 Part 2
Terms in this set (70)
self-perception processes are more likely to operate when our feelings are ____ and when we _____.
weak or unclear; think about the situation in which we behaved
Self-affirmation theory posits that the cause of attitudes changing to match behavior is due to
the need to protect or recover self-esteem arising from attitude-behavior inconsistency.
Recall that Elliot Aronson and Judson Mills (1959) had some women read sex-related words aloud, had others read lurid passages and obscene words aloud, and still others undergo no initiation to join a group discussing various aspects of sex. According to cognitive dissonance theory, why did the women who underwent a severe initiation like the (boring) discussion more?
They interpreted ambiguous aspects of the discussion in the most positive light possible.
People who had already placed their $2 bets were more confident of winning than people who were waiting in line to place their bets (Knox & Inkster, 1968). These findings suggest that decisions that are ______ generate more cognitive dissonance than decisions that are not.
Recall that Jack Brehm (1956) asked women to rate the desirability of a number of appliances, and then allowed them to choose one of those appliances as a gift. Twenty minutes later, all women re-rated the same appliances, including the one they chose. Women tended to rate the alternatives they rejected lower than they had originally, and to rate their chosen appliance more positively. These results suggest that people
reduce dissonance by overestimating differences between chosen and rejected alternatives.
To produce the biggest attitude change, you should use the __________ incentives that _________________________.
smallest; change the behavior
Recall that Elliot Aronson and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1963) told preschoolers that they were not allowed to play with a toy that the children had already rated as more attractive than other toys. Half of the children were threatened with mild punishment if they disobeyed, and the other half with severe punishment. When the experimenter left the room, none of the children played with the forbidden toy. When the experiment returned and asked children to rate all the toys again, those children who received
mild threats reduced their dissonance by rating the forbidden toy as less attractive than before
When people act contrary to their self-perceptions as reasonable and sensible people or in ways that conflict with their attitudes, they experience an uncomfortable feeling known as _____________.
The theory of cognitive dissonance is a motivational theory. Specifically, the motivation involved is that
discomfort and arousal cause people to change their attitudes.
According to both cognitive dissonance and self-perception theories, which of the following parental techniques should be most effective in changing a child's behavior permanently (i.e., even behavior that occurs in the absence of the parent)?
threat of mild punishment
Assume that you were a participant in the experiment conducted by Leon Festinger and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1959), in which participants were paid either a large or small sum of money to tell an innocent stranger that the boring, tedious task you had just completed was really enjoyable and very interesting. Further assume that you were paid a large amount of money to tell the stranger that lie. In this situation, you would be most likely to
B.maintain your original assessment of the task as dull and boring.
In a clever experiment by Claude Steele and his colleagues (1986), why did some participants wearing white lab coats fail to exhibit typical dissonance effects by rating a chosen alternative higher than they did before making the choice?
They were science majors, and the coat served a "self-affirmation function."
Threats of severe punishment are not likely to change behaviors in the absence of the person who punishes, because such severe threats provide
external justification for halting the undesirable behavior.
Self-affirmation theory posits that when people experience a threat to some aspect of their self-concept, they will
focus their attention and efforts on some other self-aspect.
Recall that Leon Festinger and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1959) paid participants either $1 or $20 to tell another person that a boring, tedious task was really fun and interesting. The results of their experiment demonstrated that
inadequate external justification can lead to attitude change.
In general, the more _______ a decision between alternatives, the ______ post-decision dissonance.
Which of the following examples of inconsistencies is likely to generate the most cognitive dissonance and to cause the most distress?
Ned, who perceives himself as a gentle parent, hollers at his son
Research by Mark Zanna and Joel Cooper (1974), in which participants were misled about the effects of a placebo (sugar pill), suggests that ______ is an important component of the cognitive dissonance phenomenon
attributing arousal to the attitude-behavior
According to dissonance theorists, what is the problem with the threat of severe punishment to control behaviors? Severe punishment
serves as an external justification for behavior change.
Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy once wrote, "We do not love people so much for the good they have done us as for the good we have done them." This quote is most closely related to the concept of
Because they provide the potential offender _________, threats of harsh punishment seldom produce positive attitude change.
ample external justification for restraint
People are unlikely to change their attitude after saying something they don't truly believe if there is ______ for the lie.
________ refers to the dissonance aroused after we have chosen between two or more alternatives
According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, you are more likely to be influenced by the central route when you are
willing and able to give your full attention to the message.
The ______ route to persuasion is to enduring attitude change as the ______ route to persuasion is to transient change.
When people don't attend carefully to the substance of a persuasive communication, but instead pay attention to irrelevant cues, they are using the _____ route to persuasion.
______ theory posits that when people feel their freedom threatened, they will work to restore it by performing the threatened behavior.
According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the best predictor of riding a roller coaster would be
one's intention to ride the roller coaster.
All of the following have been positively correlated with attitude strength except
A.importance of the topic
B.knowledge about the topic
C.heritability of the attitude
(D).extent to which attitude is cognitively based
Good moods tend to cause people to take the ______ route to persuasion, whereas bad moods tend to cause people to take the _____ route.
Fear-arousing communications are most likely to result in attitude change when
people think that attending to a message will reduce the fear.
According to the tenets of cognitive dissonance theory, people are most likely to change their attitudes when they have _____ justification for an attitude-discrepant behavior.
There is an exception to the general rule that logical, informative messages will be highly persuasive when the issue is relevant to the audience. What is that exception?
Logical, informative messages will not work well when values and feelings are the basis of the attitude in question.
Why, according to research by William McGuire (1964), does attitude inoculation work to increase resistance to subsequent persuasion attempts? Attitude inoculation
encourages people to think about the issues and to generate counter-arguments.
Recall that Howard Leventhal and his colleagues (1967) showed one group of smokers a film depicting the ravages of lung cancer, gave another group of smokers a pamphlet with instructions on how to quit smoking, and exposed a third group to both the film and the pamphlets. People in the last group reduced their smoking significantly more than people in the other two groups because
fear was aroused and they were provided a means to reduce that fear
Who is more likely to use the central route to persuasion when attending to a communication about health insurance reform?
James, who is undergoing extensive treatments after his auto accident
Consider the following statements: "I would prefer complex to simple problems" and "I like tasks that require little thought once I've learned them." People's responses to those statements capture their
need for cognition.
A number of social psychological studies have revealed that compared to people in a bad mood, those in a good mood are less likely to pay close attention to the quality of persuasive messages. Why? People in
good moods don't want to be distracted from their mood.
People are most likely to form behaviorally based attitudes when ____________ and _____________.
the initial attitude is weak or ambiguous; there are no external justifications for the behavior
Recall that in the l930s, when anti-Asian prejudice was commonplace in the United States, Richard LaPiere (1934) had no trouble finding pleasant accommodations for himself and his Chinese traveling companions. Surprised, LaPiere later sent letters to the establishments they visited, asking whether Chinese visitors would be welcome. More than 90% of those who responded replied that they definitely would not accommodate Chinese. This study is noteworthy because it suggested that
the link between attitudes and behaviors is often tenuous
According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, people who _____ are most likely to take the _____ route to persuasion.
are motivated to pay attention; central
Source credibility is a ____route persuasion cue, and is most likely to influence the attitude of a target who
peripheral; is cognitively busy
The development of our sense of self is partly influenced by the culture in which we grow up. For example, in Western cultures people tend to have an _____ view of the self, whereas in non-Western cultures people tend to have an _____ view of the self.
When there are no objective criteria to measure achievement, people often rely on _____ to evaluate how well they performed.
Recall that Donald Dutton and Art Aron (1974) had an attractive confederate approach men either on a high, narrow, swaying suspension bridge, or else on a low, steady masonry bridge. More men called the woman when she approached them on the scary bridge. Why?
Men misattributed their fear as sexual attraction
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our shortcomings and undesirable behaviors
false uniqueness effect
tendency to underestimate to extent to which others share our favorable traits and positive behaviors
tendency to believe any information if it relfects positively on the self
tendency for most people to rate themselves as better than most others on subjective traits that are socially desirable
better than average effect
unconsciously acting in a way that makes failure more likely so that we can make an external, rather than an internal, attribution if we do fail
overestimating the extent to which others attend to and are influenced our own behavior.
tendency to accept more credit when doing so in private rather than in public.
tendency to be more certain about our beliefs and knowledge than our actual accuracy warrants
locus of control
a set of beliefs about how much our own behavior affects outcomes.
According to research by Tim Wilson and his colleagues (1989, 1992, 1995), analyzing the reasons for why we feel what we do is not always the best strategy for making sense of our feelings. This is because
A.reasons that are available in mind are not always the "correct" reasons.
According to Stanley Schachter's (1964) two-factor theory of emotion, because it is often difficult to label our physiological states, we often look to _____________ to help us infer how we're feeling and why we're feeling that way.
Social psychologists have found that attitudes do predict behavior, but only under certain specifiable conditions. According to the authors of your text, one key factor is knowing whether the behavior in question is
spontaneous or deliberate
_____ theory posits that when our attitudes or feelings are ambiguous, we infer our internal states by observing our own behaviors and the situation in which they occur.
According to the research of Bushman and Baumeister that was depicted in the video we viewed, what were the findings with respect to self-esteem (SE) and aggression?
those with the highest SE were the most aggressive after being criticized.
______ theory provides the best explanation for the overjustification effect, and the results of facial and kinesthetic feedback studies
Consider the following quote from Friedrich Nietzsche cited in the introduction to Chapter 5 (Self-Knowledge): "We are all unknown, we knowers, ourselves to ourselves; this has its own good reason." A social psychologist would likely agree because
it is not always clear what we feel or why we feel it.
Daryl Bem's self-perception theory suggests that we form attitudes about an object based more on our _____ toward that object than our _____ toward that object.
behavior; thoughts and feelings
When we introspect about the reasons underlying our attitudes or feelings, the explanations we arrive at
seem plausible and be easy to articulate, but may sometimes be incorrect
With respect to the combined effect of message discrepancy and source credibility (the Agnes Stearns vs. T. S. Eliot study), what do the data suggest?
Messages of large discrepancy have the greatest persuasive effect, but only when the source credibility is high.
Schachter's (1964) two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we first experience ________ and then subsequently seek to ________.
physiological arousal; label the emotion appropriately
A basic tenet of self-perception theory is that we infer, our feelings from our behavior when
the reasons for our attitudes or feelings are ambiguous.
People engage in self-handicapping strategies in order to avoid
an internal attribution for failure
The cornerstone of Leon Festinger's (1954) social comparison theory is that people
have a need to evaluate their own opinions and abilities.
Although affectively based attitudes can be derived from a number of different sources, they are alike in that they tend to be
linked to personal values.
When it comes to designing a persuasive message, the authors assert that "it is best to fight fire with fire." By this, they meant that
it is effective to match the type of message appeal to the basis of the attitude.