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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Mod world civilization renaissance review
Terms in this set (65)
The Renaissance was a time of great creativity and change in many areas—economic, political, social, and above all, cultural. A time where culture started to thrive, the golden age. started in Italy
study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome
everyday language of ordinary people, as well as in Latin. (Latin was the language of the elite people)
Financial supporters of arts (wealthy people, royalty kings and queens, church)
What family was the most famous patron of the arts in Italy during the Renaissance and what city did they
Lorenzo family, Medici, and The magnificent, Lorenzo was the most famous person in the fam
it is making an image on a 2d surface making it look like 3d image. The last supper is an example.
Often Renaissance artists showed religious figures such as
Statues in Medici gardens
Leonardo da Vinci
He was a famous artist that made many drawings and paintings about the Renaissance time period.
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
what was the Book of the Courtier about?
is a lengthy philosophical dialogue on the topic of what constitutes an ideal courtier or (in the third chapter) court lady, worthy to befriend and advise a Prince or political leader. and it also talks about how women should act
how should women act?
they were told to be housewives and take care of the house and children for the family while the men did work
What book did Niccolo Machiavelli write? and what is it about?
The Prince; for rulers, and how to gain and keep power
what idea did Machiavelli talk about?
The ends justify by means, meaning to do whatever it takes to get what you want, meaning going to extreme levels of violence or lying. rulers can arrest others to get their goals completed. And it is better if people both fear and love you as a leader.
What book did Erasmus Write?
In Praise of Folly and It uses humor to explore the ignorant, immoral behavior of people.
What book did Sir Thomas More write?
Utopia; Meaning no place
what society did Thomas More want?
all men and women live in peace and harmony, no such things as private property, no one is idle, all are educated, and justice is used to end crime rather than eliminate crimes, he wrote the book to criticize society
Define Utopia as it is used in today's society?
any ideal society, with the implication that such a society is impractical.
WHy is Shakespeare a amazing writer?
a) His work explores Renaissance ideals such as the complexity of the individual and the importance of the classics.(his use of language was very easy to understand and take into account)
b) He uses normal common settings and puts major and universal messages in them.
Little about shakespeare
He wrote the plays Romeo and Juliet / Hamlet/macbeth/ julius cesar. The Globe was the theatre were most of plays were viewed and it was in London.
He made the Printing press, he made the Gutenberg Bible
Impacts of the Printing Press
1) The idea of christianity spread across the world because they could make more bibles
2) A globe new network was finally launched
3) The renaissance kicked into higher gear
4) fringe voices finally got a platform
What was the church doing that was wrong?
They were selling indulgences to people
type of pardon that lessened the time of punishment a soul faced for sins committed during a person's lifetime
why did the church give indulgences out?
at first they were given out for good deeds but later they gave them to other others for money or they could give them to different churches as a gift for them.
who was Martin Luther?
a German monk and professor of theology from Wittenberg,Germany
For what purpose did Johann Tetzel sell indulgences?
He sold them to any christian who would contribute money for the rebuilding of the cathedral of st. peter in rome.
Who would benefit from these indulgences?
churches, popes, sinners. and the wealthy
Why was Martin Luther upset of selling indulgences?
He was mad that people could buy indulgences and think that they are safe instead of seeking true repentance for their sins.
What are "theses"?
A list of arguments against indulgences
Name 3 of Martin Luther's theses
a) People should not just be able to buy off their salvation to heaven.
b) That an indulgence makes repentance unnecessary.
c) Humans should reach their salvation through faith and not deeds and the bible is the central religious authority
how did the church react to "Theses"?
a) Providing food for him or helping him became a crime so he must survive on his own
b) They had wanted him to give up his teachings
c) They x communicated him and put him in house arrest
Name at least 4 beliefs or changes that Martin Luther believed in:
a) Salvation could only be achieved through faith
b) The bible is the sole source of the religious truth
c) priests and the Church hierarchy had special powers was not true in his teachings
d) Luther wanted to change or modify other church practices. He rejected five of the seven sacraments because the Bible did not mention them.
How did Martin Luther's ideas spread
Who is John Calvin and what did he believe?
He was a man with a very smart mind and had studied much about the bible and had many ideas about it. Salvation was gained through faith alone. The bible was the only source of religious authority. He created a city of god which was a religious city with strict rules.
what does Predestination mean?
An idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation
What city and country asked Calvin to come and lead them?
Geneva, switzerland. city of God
What is a "theocracy"?
Government run by church leaders.
Citizens in that city could be fined or worse if they committed what offenses?
They would be punished for fighting, swearing, dancing, or laughing in church
Describe the beliefs and consequences of living in the Calvinist city
Calvinists stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and morality.
To cancel someone's marriage,
What did King Henry VIII want to do and why?
What did King Henry VIII want to do and why? (use people's names when explaining) King Henry wants to divorce his wife Katherine and marry Anne Boleyn because he wasn't able to have a son with Kate. He wants a son that will be a male heir.
Did the pope agree to cancel their marriage?
The popped refused, Because he didn't want to offend the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Catherine's Nephew.
What was the Act of Supremacy?
A law in 1534 that made Henry the only supreme head on earth of the church of England
who did King Henry marry as his second wife?
Anne Boleyn and their child's name was Elizabeth but still didn't have a son
what did he do after?
He had married four more women and still only had one son who's name was Edward
what was the new church called
Anglican Church and He used much of his new acquired wealth to purse wars in Europe, he is bribing leaders and others to fund the church
When Henry died, who took over?
His 9 year old son Edward VI
What was so unusual about the Book of Common Prayer
It imposed a moderate form of Protestant service but preserved many Catholic doctrines
who took over after Edward?
His half sister Mary Tudor, nick name is bloody mary
Who took over when Mary died?
Her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth, Elizabeth enforced reforms that both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept
The Council of Trent reaffirmed 2 basic Catholic beliefs
Salvation comes through faith and good works, and that while the Bible is a major source of religious truth, it was not the only source.
the Council also had 2 reforms (improvements) that they made to end abuses and corruption
It provided stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption among the clergy, and they also established schools to create a better-educated clergy who could challenge Protestant teachings.
Church court set up during the Middle Ages
What methods did they use to stop attacks upon the Church
The Inquisition had used secret testimony, torture, and execution.
Index of Forbidden books
a list of works considered too immoral for Catholics to read, The list had also included some books by Luther and Calvin , and even some by Italian Humanists.
Who were the Jesuits
It was a new religious order of the Society of Jesus. Their leader was Ignatius of Loyola. Their purpose was embarked on a crusade to defend and spread the Catholic faith worldwide
They spread their message to Asia, Africa, and America. They had also become advisers to catholic rulers. and they set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs and enforced discipline and obedience.
Which people lived in ghettos
Who called for them to be expelled from the country if they did not convert?
Religious reformers looked to the Bible and early Christian times for inspiration
People started to believe a new future shaped by a new physical universe in the begging of the 1500s
Greek astronomer Ptolemy had taught that Earth was the center of the universe
In the 1500s and 1600s European started to view the world differently because of discoveries
A Poshilsh scholar had came up with the idea that the sun is the middle of the universe. Every night for years, he carefully observed the sky, accumulating data about the movement of the heavenly bodies
The thought of that discovery contradicted the Church teachings and the teachings of Ptolemy
Someone made the discovery that the planets move in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse.
Nicolaus Copernicus had published on the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, in which he proposed a "Heliocentric" He had been proposing that the sun is the center of our universe and that the earth and all the other planets revolve around it
Sun centered model of the universe, he proposed that the sun stands in the middle and several planets revolve around it
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