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157 terms

Understanding Nutrition 101 mid-term

Chapters 1-7
STUDY
PLAY
The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can hydrolyze the fat is know as ______
Emulsification
which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? liver, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands
Liver
What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice
Secretin
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content? Brown colored, refined, enriched, whole-grain
whole-grain
height, weight, head-circumference or fat-fold measurements that are used to evaluate an individual's nutrition status are
examples of ____ ____
anthropometric data
_____ ____ cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
essential nutrients
what is one function of the gallbladder
stores bile
the purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process
is to
make chyme more neutral.
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of
what 2 vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?
Vitamin A and C
mastication
act of chewing
What vitamin are vegetarians most likely to have
deficiencies in?
vitamin B12
when nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them
liver
where are most nutrients absorbed?
Small intestine
what structure controls the passage of material from
the small intestine to the large intestine?
ileocecal valve
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcal control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
After swallowing in what order does food pass
through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
what typically does not get digested but stimulates
intestinal muscle contractions?
Fiber
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on
the __ __ __
Estimated Average Requirement
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine
Liver
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate? Starches, white sugar, disaccharides, monosaccharides
Starches
What is the primary function of insulin?
Lowers blood glucose levels
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
Denaturation
What is needed for proper fat digestion?
Lipase, and Bile
Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?
the side group
The chemical reaction that splits starch into monosaccharides is called
hydrolysis
what is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
Condensation
the structure of cell membranes is made up of many
phospholipids
Which of the following is not an enzyme involved with protein digestion?
Lactase
what is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?
glycogen
Which fatty acid is essential to the human body?
Omega 3
What type of diet would provide a person foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol?
vegetarian diet
What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol?
Triglyceride
In general polyunsaturated fats are considered to be
liquid at room temp.
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins as large fats?
Lymphatic
What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats
nitrogen
what type of nutrient is starch
Complex carbohydrate
in which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found. Plant foods, health foods, animal products, protein-rich foods
Plant foods.
the disease most common today in the U.S. include all of the following except. cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
tuberculosis
what are the basic building blocks of protein
amino acids
Which of the following increase a persons risk of heart disease? trans fat, saturated fat, low fiber diet, all of the above.
all of the above
what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
which of the following is an organic nutrient? Protein, fiber, minerals, vitamins
Fiber
after swallowing in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum,ileum, colon
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
Chyme
Which of the following is true regarding an essential nutrient?
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body.
Gram for gram which of the following provides the most energy?
Fats
which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?
liver
what is the function of mucus in the stomach?
protects stomach cells from gastric juices.
Which of the following is an anthropometric measurement?
body weight
which of the following is not a component of pancreatic juice?
Bile
what is the function of bile?
emulsifies fats
what is the name of the protections on the inner surface of the small intestine?
Villi
what is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
small intestine
into what section of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?
Duodenum
what is mastication?
the act of chewing
Describe peristalsis?
wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles.
what is meant by the term "motility" in reference to the GI tract?
the speed of peristalsis and food moving through the GI tract
among the GI tract organs which has the strongest muscles?
Stomach
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except. a)it kills bacteria, b)it activates pancreatic lipase, c) it activates pepsinogen, d) it promotes denaturing(uncoiling) of proteins
it activates pancreatic lipase
why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment.
Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?
Stomach
which of the following would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
Fiber
What is one function of the gallbladder?
stores bile
which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
vitamins
what is the first vessel to receive absorbed water soluble vitamins?
capillaries
immediately after absorption what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
lymphatic
what is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
Heart
Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice? Gastrin, secretin, glucagon, gastric-inhibitory peptide
Secretin
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?
cholecystokinin (CCK)
what are the six classes of nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water.
of the six classes of nutrients which are organic meaning they contain carbon?
carbohydrates,lipids, proteins, vitamins
what are the energy yielding nutrients?
carbohydrates (4g) Fat(9g) Protein (4g)
what is EAR
Estimated average requirement defines the amount of a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the population.
What is RDA
Recommended Dietary allowance- based on the Ear and establishes a goal that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people
what is EER
defines the average amount of energy intake needed to maintain energy balance
when people eat the foods typical of their families or geographic region their choices are influenced by
heritage or tradition
the nutrient found in most abundantly in both food and the body is
water
studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are
epidemiological studies
a deficiency caused by an inadequate dietary intake is a
primary deficiency
the diet planning principle that provides all the essential nutrients in sufficient amounts to support health is balance, variety, adequacy, moderation
adequacy
which of the following is consistent with the Dietary guidelines for Americans.
balance the food you eat with physical activity
according to the USDA food guide, added fats and sugars are counted as
Discretionary Kcalories
Foods within a given food group of the USDA Food guide are similar in their contents of
Vitamins and minerals
In the exchange system each portion of food on any given list provides about the same amount of
energy
enriched grain products are fortified with
iron, thiamin riboflavin, niacin, and folate
the pancreas neutralizes stomach acid in the small intestine by secreting
bicarbonate
all blood leaving the GI tract travels first to the
liver
digestion and absorption are coordinated by the
hormonal system and the nervous system
Gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin are examples of crypts, enzymes hormones, goblet cells
hormones
carbohydrates are made up of ?
Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
what are the Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
glucose, fructose, galactose
what are the disaccharides (pairs of monosaccharides)
maltose, sucrose, lactose
What are the polysaccarides (chains of monosaccharides)
glycogen, starches, fibers
blood glucose regulation depends on what two pancreatic hormones?
insulin and glucagon
what happens in a condensation reaction?
a chemical reaction in which two reactants combine to yield one larger product.
what happens in a hydrolysis reaction
a chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products with the addition of a hydrogen atom
disaccharides include
surcose, maltose, and lactose
the making of a disaccharide from two monosaccharides is an example of digestion, hydrolysis, condensation, gluconegoenesis
condensation
the significant difference between starch and cellulose is that
digestive enzymes can break the bonds in starch but in cellulose
the ultimate goal of carbohydrate digestion and absorption is to yield fibers, glucose, enzymes, amylase
glucose
the enzyme that breaks a disaccharide into glucose and galactose is
lactase
the storage form of glucose in the body is
glycogen
with insufficient glucose in metabolism, fat fragments combine to form dextrins, mucilaes, phytic acids, ketone bodies
ketone bodies
what does the pancreas secrete when blood glucose rises when blood glucose falls?
insulin, and glucagon
what percentage of the daily energy intake should come from carbohydrates?
45-65
what is the predominate lipids found in food and the body
Triglycerides
what does hydrogenation do
it makes polyunsaturated fats more saturated and creates trans-fatty acids
what are the different types of polyunsaturated fats
omega3, omega-6
saturated fatty acids
are fully loaded with hydrogen's
A triglyceride consists of
Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
the difference between cis and trans-fatty acids is
the configuration around the double bond
which of the following is not true Lecithin is an emulsifier a phospholipid an essential nutrient a constituent of cell membranes
an essential nutrient
chylomicrons are produced in the
small intestine
transport vehicles for lipids are called
lipoproteins
which part of its chemical structure differentiates one amino acid from another
its side group
isoleucine, leucine, and lysine are
essential amino acids
in the stomach hydrochloric acid
denatures proteins and activates pepsin
Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions are
enzymes
if an essential amino acid that is needed to make a protein is unavailable the cells must
break down proteins to obtain it
protein turnover describes the amount of protein
synthesized and degraded
Marasmus develops from
inadequate protein and energy intake
the protein RDA for a healthy adult who weighs 180 is
65 g day
hydrolysis
reaction splits a molecule into two
gluconeogenesis
the making of glucose from a non carbohydrate source (protein)
ketone bodies
the metabolic products of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells
ketosis
an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine
what percentage of the daily energy intake should
come from fat
20-35%
what percentage of the daily energy intake should
come from protein
10-35%
fatty acid
an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogen's attached and an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons
point of unsaturation
the double bond of a fatty acid where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure
polyunsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid carrying the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks hydrogen atoms and has at least one double bond between carbons.
linoleic acid
an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and three double bonds
antioxidants
a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen
Hydrogenation
a chemical process by which hydrogen's are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce he number of double bonds making the fats more saturated and more resistant to oxidation.
cis
on the near side of
trans
on the other side of
lecithin
on of the phospholipids. both nature and the food industry use Lecithin as an emulsifier to combine water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients that do not ordinarily mix.
sterols
compounds containing a four-ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains attached
lipoproteins
transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood
in the body triglyerides
provided energy, insulate against temperature extremes protect against shock, help the body use carbohydrates and protein
artificial fats
zero-energy fat replaces that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities f naturally occurring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion
olestra
a synthetic fat made from sourose and fatty acids that provides 0 kcal per gram. also know as sucrase polyester
peptide bond
a bond that connects the acid end of the one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain
pepsin
a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein.
acidosis
higher than normal acidity in the blood and body fluids.
antigens
substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system
proteins maintain
growth and maintenance, enzymes, hormones, fluid balance acid base balance transportation antibodies, energy and glucose.
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
a deficiency of protein, energy or both including kwashiorkor, marasmus
Acute PEM
sever food restriction; characterized in children by underweight for height (wasting)
Chronic PEM
long term food deprivation, characterized in children by short height for age
Kwashiorkor
a form of PEM the results from inadequate protein intake and infections
high quality proteins
contains all essential amino acids (animal and soy proteins)
low quality porteins
missing one or more essential amino acid (most plant proteins)
**** you and lick my ass
yess