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The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can hydrolyze the fat is know as ______
which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? liver, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content? Brown colored, refined, enriched, whole-grain
height, weight, head-circumference or fat-fold measurements that are used to evaluate an individual's nutrition status are
examples of ____ ____
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of
what 2 vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?
Vitamin A and C
when nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them
what structure controls the passage of material from
the small intestine to the large intestine?
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcal control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
After swallowing in what order does food pass
through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate? Starches, white sugar, disaccharides, monosaccharides
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?
the side group
What type of diet would provide a person foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol?
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins as large fats?
in which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found. Plant foods, health foods, animal products, protein-rich foods
the disease most common today in the U.S. include all of the following except. cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Which of the following increase a persons risk of heart disease? trans fat, saturated fat, low fiber diet, all of the above.
all of the above
after swallowing in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum,ileum, colon
Which of the following is true regarding an essential nutrient?
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body.
wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles.
what is meant by the term "motility" in reference to the GI tract?
the speed of peristalsis and food moving through the GI tract
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except. a)it kills bacteria, b)it activates pancreatic lipase, c) it activates pepsinogen, d) it promotes denaturing(uncoiling) of proteins
it activates pancreatic lipase
why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment.
which of the following would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
immediately after absorption what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice? Gastrin, secretin, glucagon, gastric-inhibitory peptide
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?
of the six classes of nutrients which are organic meaning they contain carbon?
carbohydrates,lipids, proteins, vitamins
what is EAR
Estimated average requirement defines the amount of a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the population.
What is RDA
Recommended Dietary allowance- based on the Ear and establishes a goal that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people
when people eat the foods typical of their families or geographic region their choices are influenced by
heritage or tradition
studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are
the diet planning principle that provides all the essential nutrients in sufficient amounts to support health is balance, variety, adequacy, moderation
which of the following is consistent with the Dietary guidelines for Americans.
balance the food you eat with physical activity
Foods within a given food group of the USDA Food guide are similar in their contents of
Vitamins and minerals
In the exchange system each portion of food on any given list provides about the same amount of
Gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin are examples of crypts, enzymes hormones, goblet cells
what happens in a condensation reaction?
a chemical reaction in which two reactants combine to yield one larger product.
what happens in a hydrolysis reaction
a chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products with the addition of a hydrogen atom
the making of a disaccharide from two monosaccharides is an example of digestion, hydrolysis, condensation, gluconegoenesis
the significant difference between starch and cellulose is that
digestive enzymes can break the bonds in starch but in cellulose
the ultimate goal of carbohydrate digestion and absorption is to yield fibers, glucose, enzymes, amylase
with insufficient glucose in metabolism, fat fragments combine to form dextrins, mucilaes, phytic acids, ketone bodies
what does the pancreas secrete when blood glucose rises when blood glucose falls?
insulin, and glucagon
what does hydrogenation do
it makes polyunsaturated fats more saturated and creates trans-fatty acids
which of the following is not true Lecithin is an emulsifier a phospholipid an essential nutrient a constituent of cell membranes
an essential nutrient
if an essential amino acid that is needed to make a protein is unavailable the cells must
break down proteins to obtain it
the metabolic products of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells
an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogen's attached and an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons
point of unsaturation
the double bond of a fatty acid where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure
polyunsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks hydrogen atoms and has at least one double bond between carbons.
a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen
a chemical process by which hydrogen's are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce he number of double bonds making the fats more saturated and more resistant to oxidation.
on of the phospholipids. both nature and the food industry use Lecithin as an emulsifier to combine water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients that do not ordinarily mix.
compounds containing a four-ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains attached
in the body triglyerides
provided energy, insulate against temperature extremes protect against shock, help the body use carbohydrates and protein
zero-energy fat replaces that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities f naturally occurring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion
a synthetic fat made from sourose and fatty acids that provides 0 kcal per gram. also know as sucrase polyester
a bond that connects the acid end of the one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain
substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system
growth and maintenance, enzymes, hormones, fluid balance acid base balance transportation antibodies, energy and glucose.
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
a deficiency of protein, energy or both including kwashiorkor, marasmus
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