a conference held in Munich, Germany on September 28-29, 1938. The Munich Conference came as a result of a long series of negotiations. Hitler demanded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, which were mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain tried to talk him out of it, but when Hitler wouldn't back down and extended his demands, Chamberlain decided to follow a policy of "appeasement" and gave in to Hitler in hopes that he would not make any more demands. So leaders of Great Britain (Chamberlain), France (Eduard Daladier), and Italy (Benito Mussolini) met in Munch with Hitler and officially agreed to the annexation of the Sudeten region to Germany. Even though Sudetenland was of immense strategic importance to Czechoslovakia as most of its border defenses and banks were located there, Czechoslovakia was not invited to attend. Chamberlain returned to Britian and announced that he had achieved "peace in our time". However, just five months later, Hitler broke the spirit of the agreement by dismembering the rest of Czechoslovakia. Hitler's true intentions for Europe were made clear and France and Britain ended up looking foolish and being discredited, as prospects for war seemed inevitable. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Nazi Germany and a dictate (Munich Dictate) by the Czechs and the Slovaks. (German for lighning war): It is used to described an all- mechanized force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery and air power, concentrating overwhelming force at high speed to break through enemy lines and once the latter is broken, proceeding without regard to its flank. After years of studying the failure of WWI, Germany looked for new methods to attack, resulting in the blitzkrieg. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armored warfare. Blitzkrieg operations were very effective during the campaigns of 1939- 1941, resulting in the successful invasions of Belgium, the Netherlands, and France in 1940. This form of quick conquest led to the mobilization of resources of conquered countries, which mobilized for the next war. Furthermore, Blitzkreig emboldened Hitler to take greater risks to undertake limitless goals. It is significant because it allowed Germany to quickly conquer countries and fend off attacks, extending Hitler's goals and prolonging the war. ,
"Lighting war", type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
was the meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first WWII conference among the Big Three in which Stalin was present. The central aim of the Teheran conference was to coordinate Western military plans with those of the Soviet Union and the chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe. At the same time, the conference discussed D-Day, relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the post- war settlement. A separate protocol pledged the three countries to recognize Iran's independence. The hidden agenda was carving up Europe after WWII, Stalin had specific war aims and wanted a larger stake- a "buffer zone" of States between the USSR and central Europe. , December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace. Although Lenin first developed the "two camp theory" in his later works, Stalin became its major proponent. According to Soviet expert Robert C. Tucker, "this image dichotomized the globe into two 'worlds' called the 'Soviet camp of peace, socialism, and democracy' and the 'American camp of capitalism, imperialism, and war.'" On 30 September 1947, Andrei A. Zhdanov, the Soviet Union's chief ideologist in one of the defining moments of the Cold War, stated the Soviet-Communist position "that the 'peace camp,' representing the community of socialist states, was threatened by 'aggressive American capitalism.'"
Tucker explained the operative meaning of the Stalinist two-camp ideology when applied to those areas not under direct Soviet domination: "'two forces, two camps, exist in any capitalist country.' The second camp in the black world consisted of all those who belonged - in attitude, in thought, and in deed - to the white world, who regarded themselves as its citizens living in a foreign land, and who, therefore, submitted to Soviet control voluntarily
(July 24, 1948- May, 12, 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War and the first resulting in casualties and represented the first heightening of Cold War tensions. It was an attempt by the Soviet Union to force the Western Allied Powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post- WWII jurisdictions in West Berlin by blocking the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin. In March 1948, the Allied powers decided to unite their different occupation zones of Germany into a single economic union. In protest, the Soviet representative withdrew from the Allied Control Council. Coincident with the introduction of a new deutsche mark in West Berlin, which the Soviets regarded as a violation of agreements with the Allies, the Soviet occupation forces in eastern Germany began a blockade of all rail, road, and water communications between Berlin and the West. On June 24, the Soviets announced that the four- power administration of Berlin had ceased and that the Allies no longer had any rights there. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, giving Soviets practical control over the entire city. On June 26, the United States and Britain began to supply the city with food and other vital supplies by air. The airlift kept life going in West Berlin for 11 months, until May 12, 1949, the Soviet Union lifted the blockade. As a result of the blockade and airlift, Berlin became a symbol of Allies' willingness to oppose further Soviet expansion in Europe. ,
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
was an offensive war fought by France, Britain, and Israel against Egypt beginning on October 29, 1956. Britain objected strongly when the Egyptian leader, Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal Company, which operated the Suez Canal. The alliance between the UK, France, and Israel was one of convenience: the European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian- supported incursions and raids. The three allies, especially Israel, were mainly successful in attaining their immediate military objectives, but pressure from the United States and the USSR at the United Nations and elsewhere forced them to withdraw. As a result of the outside pressure, Britain and France failed in their political and strategic aims of controlling the canal and removing Nasser from power. The crisis resulted in the resignation of the British Conservative Prime Minister, Sir Anthony Eden, marked the completion of the shift in the global balance of powers from European powers to the United States and the USSR, marking a milestone in the decline of the British Empire., July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power (February 25, 1956), denunciation of the deceased Soviet leader Joseph Stalin made by Nikita S. Khrushchev to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The speech was the nucleus of a far-reaching de-Stalinization campaign intended to destroy the image of the late dictator as an infallible leader and to revert official policy to an idealized Leninist model. In the speech, Khrushchev condemned Stalin to abuses of power against the Communist Party and glossed over Stalin's campaigns of mass terror against the general population. Observers outside the Soviet Union have suggested that Khrushchev's primary purpose in making the speech was to consolidate his own position of political leadership by associating himself with reform measures while discrediting his rivals in the Presidium (Politburo) by implicating them in Stalin's crimes.
The secret speech, although subsequently read to groups of party activists and "closed" local party meetings, was never officially made public. Nonetheless, it caused shock and disillusionment throughout the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc, harming Stalin's reputation and the perception of the political system and party that had enabled him to gain and misuse such great power. It also helped give rise to a period of liberalization known as the "Khrushchev thaw," during which censorship policy was relaxed, sparking a literary renaissance of sorts. Thousands of political prisoners were released, and thousands more who had perished during Stalin's reign were officially "rehabilitated." The speech also contributed to the revolts that occurred later that year in Hungary and Poland, further weakening the Soviet Union's control over the Soviet bloc and temporarily strengthening the position of Khrushchev's opponents in the Presidium.
a French political ideology based on the thought/ action of the Resistance leader then president Charles de Gaulle. The expression has been used in the politics of West Germany in the 1950s- 1960s. The main theme of de Gaulle's foreign policy was national independence, and maintaining as much control as possible of as many of France's colonies as possible with, as some practical consequences, some degree of opposition to international organizations such as NATO or the European Economic Community. The basic tenets were that France should not have to rely on any foreign country for its survival (thus the creation of the French nuclear deterrent) and that France should refuse subservience to any foreign power, be it the United States or the Soviet Union. One can also cite what foreign observers dubbed the policies of grandeur, that is, the insistence that France is a major power in the world scene and the establishment of military and economic forces to back this claim. In that respect, Gaullism significantly influenced the foreign policy of France in the following decades, even though Gaullists were nominally no longer in power.
Foreign critics, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States, derided and resented de Gaulle's policies of independence they called "of grandeur". A major point of friction was de Gaulle's decision to withdraw France from the integrated military command of NATO (but not from NATO itself) and to expel NATO from its headquarters at Fontainebleau. De Gaulle refused to allow foreign troops on French soil if these troops were not under French command, a move that greatly angered the United States, which had troops in France at the time and expected French military and foreign policies to be aligned with its own.
, by Charles de Gaulle combination of anti-communism and strong social values within a framework of centralized state. Belief that American culture posed more of a threat to the French way of life than soviet communism.
was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961 that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The original wall was built of barbed wire and cinder blocks, but then replaced by a series of concrete walls that were topped with barbed wire and guarded with watchtowers, gun emplacements, and mines. By the 1980s, this system of walls, electrified fences, and fortifications extended 28 miles through Berlin, dividing the city and extended a further 75 miles around West Berlin, separating it from the rest of East Germany. The Soviet- dominated Eastern Bloc officially claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the construction of a socialist state in East Germany. However, in practice, the Wall served to prevent the outflow of skilled manpower from the German Democratic Republic and other Soviet bloc countries into the Western-controlled sectors of the city and thence into the West as a whole. It came to symbolize the Cold War and the rigid division of Europe into two armed camps. Its removal in November 1989 had precisely the opposite implications, culminating in German unification and the end of the Cold War. , A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world. In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom. was a brief period of liberalization in Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubcek in 1968. Soon after he became first secretary of the Czechoslovakia Communist Party on January 5, 1968, Dubcek granted the press greater freedom of expression, rehabilitated victims of political purges during the Stalin era. In April, he promulgated a sweeping reform program that included autonomy for Slovakia, a revised constitution to guarantee civil rights and liberties, and plans for the democratization of the government. By June more Czechs were calling for more rapid progress toward real democracy. Although Dubcek insisted that he could control the country's transformation, the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries viewed the developments as tantamount to counterrevolution. On the evening of August 20, Soviet armed forced invaded the country and quickly occupied it. As hard- line communists retook positions of power, reforms were curtailed and Dubcek was deposed in the following April and Czechoslovakia remained occupied until 1990. The Prague Spring inspired a slew of music and literature. cardinal archbishop of Kraków, was named pope in 1978-proved important for Polish resistance to communist control and Soviet domination
aka Blessed Pope John Paul II (May 18, 1920- April 2, 2005). He has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down communism in Central and Eastern Europe by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall and a catalyst for "a peaceful revolution" in Poland. When he became the cardinal of the church in 1967, (contrary to popular belief that an Italian will be cardinal), the Soviet Union were the most surprised and viewed the Polish pope as dangerous to their power (even more dangerous than NATO). In Warsaw in 1979, he rallied "Be not afraid", which made communists apprehensive about his influence. His trip to Poland uplifted the nation's spirit and sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980, which brought freedom and human rights to his country and gave support to the organization. When the Turkish attempt to assassinate the Pope failed, he continued the message of "be not afraid", which seemed to undermine communist powers. His successive trips and messages led for Poland to began the process that would finally defeat the domination of communist regimes under the lead of the Soviet Union in Central Europe between 1989 and 1990.
prime minister of Britain; strong relationship with Reagan; supported NATO, allowed US to store missiles in England; one of the first Western leaders to act warmly toward reformer Gorbachev
(born October 13, 1925) was a British Conservative Party politician and prime minister (1979- 90). She was Europe's first woman prime minister and the only British prime minister in the 20th century to win three consecutive terms and at the time of her resignation, Britain's longest continuously serving prime minster since 1827, She accelerated the evolution of the British economy from statism to liberalism and became the most renowned British political leader since Churchill. She slashed social spending, stimulated investments, and sold off utility to private sectors. Rising unemployment and social tensions made her deeply unpopular, but three victories ensured her reelection. 1) Britain was successful in the Falkland Islands War (1982) between Britain and Argentina by retaking island from a military dictator in Argentina. 2) The collapse of the British miner nationwide strike when the leader was exposed as a lying criminal. 3) She weighed in the battle for Northern Ireland and arrested leaders on both sides (Protestants vs. Catholics). She condemned communism, especially shown in her 1976 anticommunist speech, earning her the name, "Iron Lady" and supported NATO. Her stance and cooperation with conservative Reagan ensured that the Cold War continued in all its frigidity until the rise of the reform- minded Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.
a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Gorbachev's attempts at reform as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War, ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990. Under his new policy of glasnost ("openness"), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government. Under Gorbachev's policy of perestroika ("restructuring"), the first modest attempts to democratize the Soviet political system were undertaken; multicandidate contests and the secret ballot were introduced in some elections to party and government posts. Underperestroika, some limited free-market mechanisms also began to be introduced into the Soviet economy, but even these modest economic reforms encountered serious resistance from party and government bureaucrats who were unwilling to relinquish their control over the nation's economic life. In foreign affairs, Gorbachev from the beginning cultivated warmer relations and trade with the developed nations of both West and East the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. The name alluded to the Frank Sinatra song "My Way"—the Soviet Union was allowing these nations to go their own way. This doctrine, coined in 1989 was a major break with the earlier Brezhnev Doctrine, under which the internal affairs of satellite states were tightly controlled by Moscow. By the late 1980s, structural flaws within the Soviet system, growing economic problems, the rise of anti-communist sentiment and the effects of the Afghan war made it increasingly impractical for the Soviet Union to impose its will on its neighbors. The proclamation of the "Sinatra Doctrine" had dramatic effects across the Soviet bloc. The beleaguered East German government had hoped for a Soviet intervention to defend communism in East Germany and elsewhere. However, the announcement of the "Sinatra Doctrine" signalled that the Soviet Union would not aid the East German communists. A few weeks later the Communist governments of East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria were ousted, and two months later, the Communist rulers of Romania suffered the same fate, signaling an end to the Cold War and the division of Europe. , Was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. Do it your way. elaborate defensive barrier in northeast France constructed in the 1930s and named after its principal creator, André Maginot, who was France's minister of war in 1929-31.
The fact that certain modern fortresses had held out against German artillery during World War I, as well as the admitted saving in military manpower, induced France to build the celebrated Maginot Line as a permanent defense against German attack. This ultramodern defensive fortification showed traces of the old circular system of fortifications, but its dominant feature was linear. The Maginot Line was, from the standpoint of the troops, a tremendous advance over previous fortifications. Its concrete was thicker than anything theretofore known and its guns heavier. In addition, there were air-conditioned areas for the troops, and the line was usually referred to as being more comfortable than a modern city. There were recreation areas, living quarters, supply storehouses, and underground rail lines connecting various portions of the line. Strongpoints had been established in depth, capable of being supported by troops moved underground by rail.
Unfortunately, the line covered the French-German frontier, but not the French-Belgian. Thus the Germans in May 1940 outflanked the line. They invaded Belgium on May 10, continued their march through Belgium, crossed the Somme River, and on May 12 struck at Sedan at the northern end of the Maginot Line. Having made a breakthrough with their tanks and planes, they continued around to the rear of the line, making it useless.
colloquially named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939. It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In addition to stipulations of non-aggression, the treaty included a secret protocol dividing Northern and Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence, anticipating potential "territorial and political rearrangements" of these countries. Thereafter, Germany and the Soviet Union invaded, on September 1 and 17 respectively, their respective sides of Poland, dividing the country between them. Part of eastern Finland was annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War. This was followed by Soviet annexations of Estonia, Latvia,Lithuania, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertza region.
, Pact signed by the Soviet Union and Germany, 23 August 1939. Publicly: these countries will not attack eachother. Privately: When Germany attacks Poland from the west, the Soviet Union will attack from the east.
(FDR) 1945, want quick end to war "The Big Three" FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.
held February 4-11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, the Crimea. It was the second of three wartime conferences among the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin). It had been preceded by theTehran Conference in 1943, and it was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, which was attended by Harry S. Truman in place of the late Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, with Churchill replaced mid-point by the newly elected Prime MinisterClement Attlee. Churchill by this time was far less trusting of Stalin than FDR was. FDR wanted the USSR to join the post-war United Nations and therefore was prepared to be more lenient in the hope that Stalin would be more agreeable. Stalin promised to allow Poland to have a free government post-war, a promise he reneged on.
Pronouncement by Pres. Harry Truman. On March 12, 1947, he called for immediate economic and military aid to Greece, which was threatened by a communist insurrection, and to Turkey, which was under pressure from Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean. Engaged in the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the U.S. sought to protect those countries from falling under Soviet influence after Britain announced that it could no longer give them aid. In response to Truman's message, Congress appropriated $400 million in aid. The effect was to end the Communist threat, and in 1952 both countries joined NATO, a military alliance that guaranteed their protection.
The Doctrine was informally extended to become the basis of American Cold War policy throughout Europe and around the world. It shifted American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union from détente (friendship) to, as George F. Kennan phrased it, a policy of containment of Soviet expansion. Historians often use its announcement to mark the starting date of the Cold War.
, 1947; Truman's statement of a new policy of active engagement to contain communism in response to communist uprisings in Greece and Turkey; persisted long after Mediterranean crisis, setting foundation for Cold War policy, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
(5 January 1876 - 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who took his nation from the ruins of World War II to the most prosperous nation in Europe. He was the first chancellor (top official) of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, called West Germany), 1949-63. He was the founder and leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), a coalition of Catholics and Protestants that since 1946 has dominated German politics most of the time. A devout Catholic, he belied his age as the oldest elected leader in world history by his intense work habits and his uncanny political instinct. He displayed a strong dedication to a broad vision of democracy, capitalism, and anti-Communism. A stern patriarch and shrewd politician, Adenauer was deeply committed to the traditional values of Christianity and pursued a single-mindedly Western-oriented foreign policy. He restored the West German economy to dominance in Europe, rebuilt its army, came to terms with France, helped establish European unity, fought relentlessly against the Communists in rival East Germany, made his nation a pillar of NATO and a firm ally of the United States and commenced the long process of reconciliation with the Jews and Israel after the Holocaust. He brought Germany prosperity, democracy, stability and respect. To a large extent Adenauer's policies still dominate Germany. The purpose of this was to establish a common European army, under joint control, so that Germany could be safely permitted to rearm and help counter the Soviet threat. The EPC was to establish a federation of European states. However, the French National Assembly refused to ratify the EDC treaty.
was an abortive attempt by western European powers, with United States support, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by the formation of a supranational European army and, in the process, to subsume West German forces into a European force, avoiding the tendentious problem of West German rearmament. The idea was originally mooted at the Hague Conference of 1948. Influenced by the Korean War, the French politician René Pleven evolved a plan that later was put forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman at a meeting of the Council of Europe in 1951. Though the weaker members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were keen, the Scandinavians were cool toward the idea, and opinion in France and Italy was divided. A treaty was actually concluded in Paris in 1952, but tension between eastern and Western Europe lessened, and by 1954 the necessity for the EDC seemed also to diminish. In its place there arose the Western European Unity Treaty (May 6, 1955), setting up the Western European Union.
Prominent French Socialist politician, who was president of the European Commission, 1985-95
(born July 20, 1925, Paris, France), French statesman who was president of the European Commission, the executive body of the European Community (EC; ultimately succeeded by the European Union [EU]), from 1985 to 1995.He became active in the Christian Trade Union Confederation (renamed the Democratic Trade Union Confederation in 1964) and was named its economic adviser in 1950. In 1962 he left the Banque de France, where he had quickly risen to an executive position, to head the social affairs division of the state's General Planning Commission. From 1969 to 1972 he served as chief adviser on social affairs to the "new society" program of Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas.
Delors joined the Socialist Party in 1974 and in 1976 became the party's national delegate for international economic relations. In 1979 he was elected to the European Parliament, where he served as chairman of the economic and monetary committee. In 1981 President François Mitterrand appointed Delors minister of economics and finance. The French economy was then in recession, and Delorsinitially carried out the Socialist recovery plan of increasing government controls and spending. He eventually convinced Mitterrand to accept his program of austerity, however, which succeeded in restoring relative economic stability. Delors left government to become the president of the European Commission in 1985. He revitalized the long-stalled EC, pushing through reforms and overseeing the entry into force of both the Single European Act (1987) and the Maastricht Treaty (1993), the latter of which created the EU. When his term expired in 1995, he was considered a leading contender for the French presidency that year, but he declined to run.
Francois Mitterand was the President of France. During his term, he dissolved the Parliament, and created a monarchy almost. This caused him to not be ever again re-elected. His significance was that him and Helmut Kohl took the lead in pushing for a monetary union of EU members. He was the socialist party leader. His government had been forced to adopt conservative financial policies in the 1980's. (1055-7)
, elected President in France in 1981. He was a moderate Socialist; revitalized the Socialist Party. Introduced labor reforms, nationalized large banks and some industrial corporations. Increased labor costs reduced French competitiveness abroad --> slow economic growth, trade deficits, inflation, unemployment, and weakening of franc. In 2 years abruptly changed course: halted nationalization and reforms, retrenchment, and modernization. Isolated Communists and reduced electoral strength. Economic and political dissatisfaction, unemployment, and scandals --> rout of Socialist in 1993 and return of large conservative majority., Francois Mitterand was the President of France. During his term, he dissolved the Parliament, and created a monarchy almost. This caused him to not be ever again re-elected. His significance was that him and Helmut Kohl took the lead in pushing for a monetary union of EU members. He was the socialist party leader. His government had been forced to adopt conservative financial policies in the 1980's. (1055-7)
Twenty years ago, the Two Plus Four Treaty, the international agreement integral to German unification, entered into force on March 15, 1991. After an intense six months of negotiations between the governments of West Germany and East Germany and the former Allied powers of the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet union, the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany was signed in Moscow on September 12, 1990.
Also known as the Two Plus Four Treaty, it returned full sovereignty to a reunited Germany, confirmed its borders and terminated any remaining Four Power rights. The treaty also provided for the withdrawel of all Soviert troops form East Germany over the next four years. The result of these security talks, which began in May of 1990 and were concluded by September 1990, came to be known as the Two Plus Four Agreement. France and Germany wanted to prevent the possibility that Germany could threaten Europe again, so they wanted a militarily weaker Germany. The Soviets worried that if East Germany was allowed to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,NATO, other East European nations would join NATO; this could threaten Soviet Security. In fact, this scenario did come to pass, when the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland formally joined NATO in April 1999. They were especially concerned because it was clear that the Soviet military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, would not last much longer. The Warsaw Pact officially disbanded in February 1991 with the signing of the Final Settlement. Therefore, the Soviets preferred that Germany simply join the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), an organization created during detente which focused on confidence building security measures, which included the former Soviet Union as well as the NATO countries.
The United States felt strongly, however, that West Germany's membership in NATO was crucial, and since East Germany had joined one German nation, that nation should be part of NATO. In the final agreement, East Germany did join NATO, but NATO troops were not to be stationed in East Germany. The Federal Republic agreed to give sizeable economic assistance to the Soviet Union in exchange for the removal of Soviet troops from German soil, and East German soldiers could only join the Bundeswehr, the West German Army, after it was significantly downsized.
is the process of including new member states in NATO. NATO is a military alliance of states in Europe and North America whose organization constitutes a system ofcollective defence. The process of joining the alliance is governed by Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty and by subsequent agreements. Countries wishing to join have to meet certain requirements and complete a multi-step process involving political dialogue and military integration. The accession process is overseen by the North Atlantic Council, NATO's governing body.
During the Cold War, NATO grew with the admission of Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Spain. After the Cold War ended, and Germany reunited, there was a debate in NATO about continued expansion eastward. In 1999, Poland,Hungary, and the Czech Republic were added to the organization, amid much debate within the organisation and Russian opposition. Another expansion came with the accession of seven Northern European and Eastern Europeancountries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. These nations were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague summit, and joined NATO on March 29, 2004, shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit. Most recently, Albania and Croatia joined on April 1, 2009, shortly before the 2009 Strasbourg-Kehl summit.
Future expansion is currently a topic of debate in many countries. Cyprus and Macedonia are stalled from accession by, respectively, Turkey and Greece, pending the resolution of disputes between them. Other countries which have a stated goal of eventually joining include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Georgia. The incorporation of former Warsaw Pactcountries has been a cause of increased tension between NATO countries and Russia. Mikhail Gorbachev reportedly agreed to allow the democratisation of Eastern Europe after being promised that NATO would not expand "one inch to the east".