Only $2.99/month

Terms in this set (45)

was a proposal by the United State government, written largely by Bernard Baruch but based on the Acheson- Lilienthal Report to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) in its first meeting in June 1946. The US, GB, and Canada called for an international organization to regulate atomic energy and President Truman responded by asking Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson and David Lilienthal to draw up a plan. The Baruch Plan was the most prominent effort by the U.S to create a world without nuclear weapons. The proposal called for the creation of an international agency that would be responsible for fostering the development of atomic power programs in other countries, licensing and regulating those programs and ensuring that no countries developed atomic weapons. It also announced that the United State would maintain its nuclear weapons monopoly until every aspect of the proposal was in effect and working. The Baruch Plan advocated the use of automatic sanctions if countries were found to be in violation of the agency's terms. However, Stalin rejected the plan. The United States also rejected a Soviet counterproposal for a ban on all nuclear weapons. The failed of the plan to gain acceptance resulted in a dangerous nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.,
In 1946, Bernard Baruch presented an American plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons. The plan called for United Nations control of nuclear weapons in three stages before the United States gave up its stockpile. Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament without inspection doomed the Baruch Plan and led to a nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
(July 24, 1948- May, 12, 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War and the first resulting in casualties and represented the first heightening of Cold War tensions. It was an attempt by the Soviet Union to force the Western Allied Powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post- WWII jurisdictions in West Berlin by blocking the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin. In March 1948, the Allied powers decided to unite their different occupation zones of Germany into a single economic union. In protest, the Soviet representative withdrew from the Allied Control Council. Coincident with the introduction of a new deutsche mark in West Berlin, which the Soviets regarded as a violation of agreements with the Allies, the Soviet occupation forces in eastern Germany began a blockade of all rail, road, and water communications between Berlin and the West. On June 24, the Soviets announced that the four- power administration of Berlin had ceased and that the Allies no longer had any rights there. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, giving Soviets practical control over the entire city. On June 26, the United States and Britain began to supply the city with food and other vital supplies by air. The airlift kept life going in West Berlin for 11 months, until May 12, 1949, the Soviet Union lifted the blockade. As a result of the blockade and airlift, Berlin became a symbol of Allies' willingness to oppose further Soviet expansion in Europe. ,
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
(February 25, 1956), denunciation of the deceased Soviet leader Joseph Stalin made by Nikita S. Khrushchev to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The speech was the nucleus of a far-reaching de-Stalinization campaign intended to destroy the image of the late dictator as an infallible leader and to revert official policy to an idealized Leninist model. In the speech, Khrushchev condemned Stalin to abuses of power against the Communist Party and glossed over Stalin's campaigns of mass terror against the general population. Observers outside the Soviet Union have suggested that Khrushchev's primary purpose in making the speech was to consolidate his own position of political leadership by associating himself with reform measures while discrediting his rivals in the Presidium (Politburo) by implicating them in Stalin's crimes.
The secret speech, although subsequently read to groups of party activists and "closed" local party meetings, was never officially made public. Nonetheless, it caused shock and disillusionment throughout the Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc, harming Stalin's reputation and the perception of the political system and party that had enabled him to gain and misuse such great power. It also helped give rise to a period of liberalization known as the "Khrushchev thaw," during which censorship policy was relaxed, sparking a literary renaissance of sorts. Thousands of political prisoners were released, and thousands more who had perished during Stalin's reign were officially "rehabilitated." The speech also contributed to the revolts that occurred later that year in Hungary and Poland, further weakening the Soviet Union's control over the Soviet bloc and temporarily strengthening the position of Khrushchev's opponents in the Presidium.
a French political ideology based on the thought/ action of the Resistance leader then president Charles de Gaulle. The expression has been used in the politics of West Germany in the 1950s- 1960s. The main theme of de Gaulle's foreign policy was national independence, and maintaining as much control as possible of as many of France's colonies as possible with, as some practical consequences, some degree of opposition to international organizations such as NATO or the European Economic Community. The basic tenets were that France should not have to rely on any foreign country for its survival (thus the creation of the French nuclear deterrent) and that France should refuse subservience to any foreign power, be it the United States or the Soviet Union. One can also cite what foreign observers dubbed the policies of grandeur, that is, the insistence that France is a major power in the world scene and the establishment of military and economic forces to back this claim. In that respect, Gaullism significantly influenced the foreign policy of France in the following decades, even though Gaullists were nominally no longer in power.
Foreign critics, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States, derided and resented de Gaulle's policies of independence they called "of grandeur". A major point of friction was de Gaulle's decision to withdraw France from the integrated military command of NATO (but not from NATO itself) and to expel NATO from its headquarters at Fontainebleau. De Gaulle refused to allow foreign troops on French soil if these troops were not under French command, a move that greatly angered the United States, which had troops in France at the time and expected French military and foreign policies to be aligned with its own.
, by Charles de Gaulle combination of anti-communism and strong social values within a framework of centralized state. Belief that American culture posed more of a threat to the French way of life than soviet communism.
was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961 that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The original wall was built of barbed wire and cinder blocks, but then replaced by a series of concrete walls that were topped with barbed wire and guarded with watchtowers, gun emplacements, and mines. By the 1980s, this system of walls, electrified fences, and fortifications extended 28 miles through Berlin, dividing the city and extended a further 75 miles around West Berlin, separating it from the rest of East Germany. The Soviet- dominated Eastern Bloc officially claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the construction of a socialist state in East Germany. However, in practice, the Wall served to prevent the outflow of skilled manpower from the German Democratic Republic and other Soviet bloc countries into the Western-controlled sectors of the city and thence into the West as a whole. It came to symbolize the Cold War and the rigid division of Europe into two armed camps. Its removal in November 1989 had precisely the opposite implications, culminating in German unification and the end of the Cold War. , A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
prime minister of Britain; strong relationship with Reagan; supported NATO, allowed US to store missiles in England; one of the first Western leaders to act warmly toward reformer Gorbachev
(born October 13, 1925) was a British Conservative Party politician and prime minister (1979- 90). She was Europe's first woman prime minister and the only British prime minister in the 20th century to win three consecutive terms and at the time of her resignation, Britain's longest continuously serving prime minster since 1827, She accelerated the evolution of the British economy from statism to liberalism and became the most renowned British political leader since Churchill. She slashed social spending, stimulated investments, and sold off utility to private sectors. Rising unemployment and social tensions made her deeply unpopular, but three victories ensured her reelection. 1) Britain was successful in the Falkland Islands War (1982) between Britain and Argentina by retaking island from a military dictator in Argentina. 2) The collapse of the British miner nationwide strike when the leader was exposed as a lying criminal. 3) She weighed in the battle for Northern Ireland and arrested leaders on both sides (Protestants vs. Catholics). She condemned communism, especially shown in her 1976 anticommunist speech, earning her the name, "Iron Lady" and supported NATO. Her stance and cooperation with conservative Reagan ensured that the Cold War continued in all its frigidity until the rise of the reform- minded Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev.
a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Gorbachev's attempts at reform as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War, ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990. Under his new policy of glasnost ("openness"), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government. Under Gorbachev's policy of perestroika ("restructuring"), the first modest attempts to democratize the Soviet political system were undertaken; multicandidate contests and the secret ballot were introduced in some elections to party and government posts. Underperestroika, some limited free-market mechanisms also began to be introduced into the Soviet economy, but even these modest economic reforms encountered serious resistance from party and government bureaucrats who were unwilling to relinquish their control over the nation's economic life. In foreign affairs, Gorbachev from the beginning cultivated warmer relations and trade with the developed nations of both West and East
the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. The name alluded to the Frank Sinatra song "My Way"—the Soviet Union was allowing these nations to go their own way. This doctrine, coined in 1989 was a major break with the earlier Brezhnev Doctrine, under which the internal affairs of satellite states were tightly controlled by Moscow. By the late 1980s, structural flaws within the Soviet system, growing economic problems, the rise of anti-communist sentiment and the effects of the Afghan war made it increasingly impractical for the Soviet Union to impose its will on its neighbors. The proclamation of the "Sinatra Doctrine" had dramatic effects across the Soviet bloc. The beleaguered East German government had hoped for a Soviet intervention to defend communism in East Germany and elsewhere. However, the announcement of the "Sinatra Doctrine" signalled that the Soviet Union would not aid the East German communists. A few weeks later the Communist governments of East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria were ousted, and two months later, the Communist rulers of Romania suffered the same fate, signaling an end to the Cold War and the division of Europe. , Was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. Do it your way.
elaborate defensive barrier in northeast France constructed in the 1930s and named after its principal creator, André Maginot, who was France's minister of war in 1929-31.
The fact that certain modern fortresses had held out against German artillery during World War I, as well as the admitted saving in military manpower, induced France to build the celebrated Maginot Line as a permanent defense against German attack. This ultramodern defensive fortification showed traces of the old circular system of fortifications, but its dominant feature was linear. The Maginot Line was, from the standpoint of the troops, a tremendous advance over previous fortifications. Its concrete was thicker than anything theretofore known and its guns heavier. In addition, there were air-conditioned areas for the troops, and the line was usually referred to as being more comfortable than a modern city. There were recreation areas, living quarters, supply storehouses, and underground rail lines connecting various portions of the line. Strongpoints had been established in depth, capable of being supported by troops moved underground by rail.
Unfortunately, the line covered the French-German frontier, but not the French-Belgian. Thus the Germans in May 1940 outflanked the line. They invaded Belgium on May 10, continued their march through Belgium, crossed the Somme River, and on May 12 struck at Sedan at the northern end of the Maginot Line. Having made a breakthrough with their tanks and planes, they continued around to the rear of the line, making it useless.
(FDR) 1945, want quick end to war "The Big Three" FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.

held February 4-11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, the Crimea. It was the second of three wartime conferences among the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin). It had been preceded by theTehran Conference in 1943, and it was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, which was attended by Harry S. Truman in place of the late Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, with Churchill replaced mid-point by the newly elected Prime MinisterClement Attlee. Churchill by this time was far less trusting of Stalin than FDR was. FDR wanted the USSR to join the post-war United Nations and therefore was prepared to be more lenient in the hope that Stalin would be more agreeable. Stalin promised to allow Poland to have a free government post-war, a promise he reneged on.
Prominent French Socialist politician, who was president of the European Commission, 1985-95

(born July 20, 1925, Paris, France), French statesman who was president of the European Commission, the executive body of the European Community (EC; ultimately succeeded by the European Union [EU]), from 1985 to 1995.He became active in the Christian Trade Union Confederation (renamed the Democratic Trade Union Confederation in 1964) and was named its economic adviser in 1950. In 1962 he left the Banque de France, where he had quickly risen to an executive position, to head the social affairs division of the state's General Planning Commission. From 1969 to 1972 he served as chief adviser on social affairs to the "new society" program of Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas.
Delors joined the Socialist Party in 1974 and in 1976 became the party's national delegate for international economic relations. In 1979 he was elected to the European Parliament, where he served as chairman of the economic and monetary committee. In 1981 President François Mitterrand appointed Delors minister of economics and finance. The French economy was then in recession, and Delorsinitially carried out the Socialist recovery plan of increasing government controls and spending. He eventually convinced Mitterrand to accept his program of austerity, however, which succeeded in restoring relative economic stability. Delors left government to become the president of the European Commission in 1985. He revitalized the long-stalled EC, pushing through reforms and overseeing the entry into force of both the Single European Act (1987) and the Maastricht Treaty (1993), the latter of which created the EU. When his term expired in 1995, he was considered a leading contender for the French presidency that year, but he declined to run.
Twenty years ago, the Two Plus Four Treaty, the international agreement integral to German unification, entered into force on March 15, 1991. After an intense six months of negotiations between the governments of West Germany and East Germany and the former Allied powers of the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet union, the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany was signed in Moscow on September 12, 1990.
Also known as the Two Plus Four Treaty, it returned full sovereignty to a reunited Germany, confirmed its borders and terminated any remaining Four Power rights. The treaty also provided for the withdrawel of all Soviert troops form East Germany over the next four years. The result of these security talks, which began in May of 1990 and were concluded by September 1990, came to be known as the Two Plus Four Agreement. France and Germany wanted to prevent the possibility that Germany could threaten Europe again, so they wanted a militarily weaker Germany. The Soviets worried that if East Germany was allowed to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,NATO, other East European nations would join NATO; this could threaten Soviet Security. In fact, this scenario did come to pass, when the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland formally joined NATO in April 1999. They were especially concerned because it was clear that the Soviet military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, would not last much longer. The Warsaw Pact officially disbanded in February 1991 with the signing of the Final Settlement. Therefore, the Soviets preferred that Germany simply join the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), an organization created during detente which focused on confidence building security measures, which included the former Soviet Union as well as the NATO countries.

The United States felt strongly, however, that West Germany's membership in NATO was crucial, and since East Germany had joined one German nation, that nation should be part of NATO. In the final agreement, East Germany did join NATO, but NATO troops were not to be stationed in East Germany. The Federal Republic agreed to give sizeable economic assistance to the Soviet Union in exchange for the removal of Soviet troops from German soil, and East German soldiers could only join the Bundeswehr, the West German Army, after it was significantly downsized.
is the process of including new member states in NATO. NATO is a military alliance of states in Europe and North America whose organization constitutes a system ofcollective defence. The process of joining the alliance is governed by Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty and by subsequent agreements. Countries wishing to join have to meet certain requirements and complete a multi-step process involving political dialogue and military integration. The accession process is overseen by the North Atlantic Council, NATO's governing body.
During the Cold War, NATO grew with the admission of Greece, Turkey, West Germany, and Spain. After the Cold War ended, and Germany reunited, there was a debate in NATO about continued expansion eastward. In 1999, Poland,Hungary, and the Czech Republic were added to the organization, amid much debate within the organisation and Russian opposition.[1][2] Another expansion came with the accession of seven Northern European and Eastern Europeancountries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. These nations were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague summit, and joined NATO on March 29, 2004, shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit. Most recently, Albania and Croatia joined on April 1, 2009, shortly before the 2009 Strasbourg-Kehl summit.
Future expansion is currently a topic of debate in many countries. Cyprus and Macedonia are stalled from accession by, respectively, Turkey and Greece, pending the resolution of disputes between them. Other countries which have a stated goal of eventually joining include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Georgia. The incorporation of former Warsaw Pactcountries has been a cause of increased tension between NATO countries and Russia. Mikhail Gorbachev reportedly agreed to allow the democratisation of Eastern Europe after being promised that NATO would not expand "one inch to the east".