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19th Century Nationalism Study Guide
Terms in this set (48)
What is anti-Semitism?
Hatred of Jews
What were pogroms?
Group of people persecuting Jews
Who was Alfred Dreyfus?
High ranking French army officer, who was accused of spying for Germany.
What was the importance of the Alfred Dreyfus Affair for Jews in Europe?
It caused the separation of church and state in France. France passed laws that made it illegal for Christian or Muslim priests to teach in public schools
What two Italian speaking provinces were ruled by Austria before Italian unification?
Lombardy and Venetia
Which Italian state who led movement for Italian unification
Kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia
What is the Italian term used for the Italian unification movement?
Italians looks to times in their past inpast in which they had been great. name two time periods during which Italians were seen as great.
Italian Renaissance and Italian expansion
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
Nationalist leader (and Romantic) from Italy who founded Young Italy.
What was Young Italy?
A nationalist group created to fight for unification of the separate Italian states.
Who was cavillo di Cavour?
Formed an alliance with france to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under piedmont king.
Who was the king of Piedmont-Sardinia?
Victor Emmanuel II
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
Planned to liberate the two kingdoms of Sicily.
Cavour forced him to hand over the conquered lands to the house of savoy(piedmont) so it wouldn't provoke a war between France
Who were the red shirts?
Garibaldi's army who helped him liberate Sicily and Napoli.
Why did Piedmont Sardinia join the Crimean War?
Prime minister of piedmont-Sardinia was looking for allies to help him in the creation of the kingdom of northern Italy.
What Italian region did piedmont Sardinia receive as a result of the war against Austria?
What two regions did piedmont-Sardinia give to France?
Savoy and Nice
Who was the ruler of France during this era?
What Italian state did garibaldi and his red shirts attack?
Why was Cavour concerned that garibaldi might attack Rome?
It would upset the large catholic powers in Europe and perhaps mean that they would gain less support from France.
What territory did Italy receive as a result of the seven weeks war in 1866?
Who was primarily responsible for the unification of Germany?
Otto von Bismarck
What German state led the movement for German unification?
How did German unification differ from Italian unification?
The unification of Germany was relatively easier than that of Italy. The actual unification of Italy took a longer period compared to that of the Germans. There was more foreign assistance in the unification of Italy than that of Germany The consequences of the two unifications also differed.
During the era of the German confederation, tensions rose between which two states over who would lead the German unification effort?
Prussia and Austria
Why were many German states(especially those in the south) fearful of German unification?
Tension between Austria and Prussia
What was the Zollverein?
a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories
Who were the junkers?
Wealthy aristocratic land owners
Who was king of Prussia?
What dynasty ruled Prussia?
What dynasty ruled Austria?
What is realpolitik?
Right of the government to pursue its own advantage by any means including war and repudiation of treaties
Prussia went to war with which three countries in order to secure German unification?
Denmark, Austria, France
Why did Prussia go to war with Denmark?
Wanted to prevent Denmarks annexation of Schleswig
Why did Prussia go to war with Austria?
Bismarck wanted Holstein
The war against Austria was called the ____________ war.
Seven years war
What was the north German confederation?
-Northern german states are unified and added to Prussia's territory
-Germany is independent however(Austria NOT included)
Which German states were not part of the north German confederation?
Wurttemberg, Baden, Bavaria, Austria, and southern Hesse
Why did Prussia go to war with France?
To keep france from expanding its border into Prussian territory
What was the Ems Dispatch?
Bismarck released an edited version of a message from wilhelm I. He made it seem that the french had insulted the king, angering the French and German public
Why did the france-Prussian war continue even after napoleon lll was captured?
France had a new government(3rd republic)
Who won the Franco-Prussian War?
Where (from what location) was German declared to be a unified nation?
Palace of Versailles
German emperor or Austrian emperor or the head of the holy Roman empire
the highest official of a monarch, prime minister
"Realm" are used in German to refer to empires and kingdoms respectively
The treaty of frankfurt after the Franco-Prussian War took what territory from France and gave it to Germany?
Why were France,Britain, and Russia concerned about the unification of Germany?
Germans developing navy
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