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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 7- Early Semantic Development
Terms in this set (41)
The First Year of Infant Development
Motor, Pragmatics, Cognitive, Phonological
Onset of first words are one word in length. As expressive vocabulary reaches 50 words, utterances are expanded into 2 and 3 word utterances. Single word period extends from 12 months of age until 2 years of age. Sometimes start to combine 18-24 months. First words appear at approximately one year.
Development of Communicative Functions
Perlocutionary Stage: Preparing the first year.
Illocutionary Stage: Intent to Communicate
Locutionary Stage: the first word
Children have gone through the perlocutionary stage and are now in the illocutionary stage.
First Word Rules
To be considered a TRUE word, the child's utterance must:
1) have a phonetic relationship to an adult word- "batta" phonemes, syllables
2) must be used consistently- say it again, more than once
3) must occur in the presence of the referent (implies an understanding of the concept or meaning)- says "batta" needs to be a bottle around, or else it is babbling. The bottle is the referent.
Vocabulary Instability in NL Children
May not hear some new words while others are forming. There is the appearance of new words and the disappearance of new words.
15-24 Months of Age
50 word lexicon (average age 19.75 months). Word learning is slow in the first half of the second year and then rapidly increases in the second half of the year. At this point of 50 word acquisition, "word spurt" or burst occurs, and 2 word combinations occur. Word spurt or burst means that there is a 50- 100/150 burst in just 6 months. Also begin to make 2 word combos.
18-24 Months of Age
Vocabulary spurt, naming insight, nominal insight, or naming exploration. It refers to a rapid increase in the number of words a child learns and uses. This is the 2 word mark.
List of Early Words
Juice, cookie, baby, bye-bye, ball, hi, car, water, eye, nose, mama, dada, doggie, kitty, that, dirty, hot, shoe, hat, all gone, more, no, up, eat, go, do, milk.
All gone, and bye-bye are learned in a chunk and are part of the early 10+ words.
Many first words contain one or two syllables. V= vowel and C= consonant. For one or two syllables, it can be CV, VC, CVCV reduplicated. There are few CVC words, because that is a final consonant. A child will likely delete or add a vowel at the end. Omit the final consonant.
First lexicon includes several categories of words. Most frequent among first 10 words, are animals, food, toys. First words usually apply to a midlevel generality (like a dog) and only later to a specific type (boxer) and larger categories (animal).
Nouns predominate in the first lexicon. Most are persons or animals within the environment or objects the child can manipulate.
A Preponderance of Nouns
Specific Nominals make up 14%- like a specific name
General Nominals make up 51%- a general name, dog
Together this makes up half, at least 65%
Nominals are nouns.
Action Words make up 14% and are like go, jump, eat- describe actions
Modifiers make up 9% and are adjectives- qualities of things
Personal Social Words make up 9%- social expressive words are like please
Function Words make up 4% items that serve a grammatical function, like is for, what and the
Nouns are used more than verbs
Language and Cultural Differences
Children who learn Mandarin, Chinese, Japanese, Kaluli, German, Italian, Hebrew, and Turkish are known to have more nouns than other word classes in their early lexicon. Consider these cultural differences.
Early Lexicon Acquisition in Various Languages
The ordering of word classes in a sentence generally refers to the order of nouns. In English, "the girl is reading the book" In other languages, such as Korean, German, Kaluli and Turkish, the verb is found at the end or final position of the sentence. The word order of sentences depends on the noun.
Conceptual Differences Between Nouns and Other Word Classes
Concrete nouns promote more rapid learning because they allow for greater transparency of the mapping between lexical and semantic information. See, touch, feel. Learn due to mapping- there is a connection between the word and the object. You need to keep seeing it and keep hearing it.
Refers to the child's use of known information to infer unknown information. Learning nouns helps you learn verbs. "Eat cookie." What is eat? I put it in my mouth, I guess that's eat. 20 months of bootstrapping.
Expressive vs Referential Word Learners
Children with general nominals less than 50% of their lexicon. More words are social words. Children with general nominals accounting for more than 50% of their vocabulary. Many nouns used. There are 2 different ways of learning words. Referentials are noun lovers. They are more concrete.
Developed language earlier and more rapidly than expressive children did. Had larger vocabularies and reached morpho-syntactic milestones sooner. Word spurts also happen. Greater growth of verb vocabulary at 20 months and there is more productive control over function words.
Innate Biases Make Word Learning Efficient
Innate biases are also referred to as constraints or principles of word learning. The child must differentiate between spoken language and other sounds as labels. The principle of reference states that words label objects, actions, and events. The principle of reference is a bias that help us learn.
Three Related Biases that Help the Child Map a New Word
This is like mapping.
1) Novel name- nameless category principle
2) Principle of mutual exclusivity
3) Whole Object Bias
1) Nameless Category Principle
Novel name, nameless. "Cup. Comb." Able to identify and name an object. Can also make up a word for a strange object. "Dax." Process of elimination- fast mapping. Making a connection between a word and a referent.
2) Principle of Mutual Exclusivity
Have a name for something, doesn't have another name while learning words. It's cup and comb, not glass and brush.
3) Whole Object Bias
Talking about whole object, not one part.
Principle of Conventionality
Children know that there are culturally agreed upon names for things and these names do not change. Otherwise, language would be chaotic. Language doesn't change- we agree to use words to name things.
Two Additional Biases:
1) Principles of Extendibility- a group of objects- multiple cups
2) Shape Bias- understand what shapes look like- opportunity for modeling
The Emergent Coalition Model (ECM) of Word Learning
This model describes how children coalesce environmental cues and innate biases to learn new words. The ECM posits that children calculate success and failure rate of mapping words to referents. This error signal feeds back into the learning system to improve reliability of coalescing these cues and strategies as the child develops. By 18-24 months children have learned that the social cue is a more reliable indicator of a referent mapping. Put together biases to learn new words. 18-24 months the social cue is the best way to know what it means, like a point.
Learning a Word
Gradual and long term process. It grossly encompasses learning the lexeme (word form or label), the semantic representation (word meaning), grammatical specifications (word class information), plus making connections between various representations. Long term and need experience word form, practice.
Phases of Word Learning
1) Fast mapping
2) Slow mapping
An initial association is made between word and referent. A related phenomenon has been referred as QUIL (Quick Incidental Learning).
It is the process of enriching lexical semantic representations after a word is fast mapped into memory. It is enriched through increased frequency of exposure and/or richer quality of exposure.
An Associationistic Account of Lexical-Semantic Representations
Lexical and semantic information is stored and linked with a distributed network in the brain. bone : visual (shape and color), associates (dogs chew bones), actions (chewing), proprioceptive-tactile experience of feeling its weight and rough texture, and lexeme (/b/, /o/, /n/). This spreads neural activation among semantic and lexical nodes. Before the child develops richer representation she is most likely to fail to retrieve the intended label.
When a child uses a word too broadly to refer to referents that may be similar in perceptual feature or function. Examples: calling a strange man "daddy"
These words have to narrow a meaning. The use of dog only when referring to a child's dog and not other dogs.
Two Traditional Theories to Explain Extension Errors
1) Semantic Feature Hypothesis
2) Functional Core Hypothesis
Semantic Feature Hypothesis
Children classify and organize referents in terms of perceptual features such as size, shape, animacy, and texture. Ball-- moon.
Functional Core Hypothesis
Words are overextended because of the actions or functions performed on objects rather than the perceptual features of the referents. "Rake" for "sweeping"
Naming Errors Continued
Ordinate- dog, cat
Subordinate- Collie, Tabby
Word Retrieval Errors can relate to their targets in several ways...
Phonologically: chicken/kitchen- mix up sounds
Semantically: skating/skiing- similar actions
Phonologically & semantically: elevator/escalator
An indeterminate response: I don't know, thing
A perseverative response: uses the same word for different objects- everything is a cup
A visual misperception: lollipop/balloon-looks the same
What is the most prevalent type of word retrieval errors?
Semantic errors and indeterminate errors. It is usually due to a weak or missing semantic representation of the target word or weak links between semantic knowledge and lexical items. Most likely to see semantic and indeterminate errors.
Long term memory is stored after learning. Working memory is involved in active, online processing of information. It allows for temporary storage of information while it is being manipulated or processed.
It has a limited capacity of resources as to where the information is directed. Working memory is the system used to make sense of new information and to integrate
new information with known information stored in LTM. Actively processing information. Example is remembering a phone number. Happening while learning language.
Later Lexical Development
Word learning is a life span experience. During the first ½ of the second year, an infant's vocabulary consists largely of nouns. Toddlerhood verb vocabulary expands
PS children learn spatial terms, temporal terms, pronouns, conjunctions. School age child learns academic and social vocabulary. School age children through adolescents and adults learn and use abstract language. Always learning words. Spatial terms- preposition "inside" Pronouns- he, she, her, him, Conjunction- and
Life Span Lexical Learning Period
Adult, adolescent, pre-adolescent, school aged, preschool, toddler, infant
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