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Channel Proteins

provide open passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophilic substances such as polar and charged molecules

Ion channels

allow the passage of ions accros the membrane


proteins that allow the passage of certain ions and small polar molecules through the membranes

Carrier proteins

bind to specific molecules, which are then transferred across the membrane after the carrier undergoes a change of shape

Transport Proteins

use energy (ATP) to transport materials across the membrane.

Recognition Proteins

give each cell type a unique identification

Adhesion proteins

attach to neighboring cells

Receptor proteins

provide binding sites for hormones or other trigger molecules


bounded by nuclear envelope, contains DNA


consist of RNA molecules and proteins

Endoplasmic Recticulum

consist of stacks of flattened sacs involved in the production of various materials

Golgi appartus

modify and packages proteins and lipids


break down food (digest)


aerobic respiration, ATP





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