BIO 181 Test 2
Terms in this set (100)
Any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time
the things organisms do to survive. For example, bird calls and migration
3 key factors: Population range, area throughout which a population occurs, Pattern of spacing of individuals, How population changes in size through time
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size.
The amount of organisms living in one area
Amount of productive land required to support an individual at the standard of living of a particular population through the course of his/her life
Quantitative study of populations
The area throughout which an individual lives
Maintaining a stable inner physiological environment
Life Table of a Cohort
Life tables show probability of survival and reproduction through a cohort's life
Graph that shows the percent of an original population that survives to a given age
Describe the three basic types of spacing patterns that can occur among individuals in a population (pp. 1166-1167)
Random spacing: individuals do not interact strongly with one another; not common in nature, Uniform spacing: behavioral interactions, resource competition, Clumped spacing: uneven distribution of resources; common in nature
Discuss/describe the trends in human population growth Section 55.7, pp. 1178-1181). (4)
o 1.2% annual growth rate (down from 2%)
• Current world human population: 7 billion
• Potentially 78 million more next year
• Human population could double in 58 years
Explain the concept of carrying capacity in consideration of population size (p. 1174).
Populations often remain the same size regardless of the number of offspring born, because all populations eventually reach some limit imposed by a shortage
Compare exponential growth and logistic growth
Exponential growth is growth of a population with no stopping and logistic growth is when the growth rate decreases as the population reaches carrying capacity
Compare semelparity and iteroparity
A species is considered semelparous if it is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death, and iteroparous if it is characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the course of its lifetime.
Compare density-dependent effects and density-independent effects on populations
Density dependent factors are factors that affect the population and depend on population size (ex. songbird population vs. baby mortality), density independent factors are other factors, such as natural disasters, affect populations regardless of size
What is Allen's rule of reduced surface area?
Mammals from colder climates have shorter ears and limbs
Group of individuals that are the same age
Includes all the organisms that live in a particular place, plus the abiotic environment in which they live and interact
The integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework
An organism that makes its own energy and has the most energy
An organism that consumes other organisms to gain energy
Level at which an organism "feeds" (Primary producers: autotrophs, Consumers: heterotrophs)
A hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.
Pyramid of biomass
a more accurate representation of the flow of energy through a food chain than a pyramid of numbers, but seasonal variations in the rate of turnover of the organisms can make it inaccurate
Pyramid of energy
Shows the amount of energy an organism has as it goes through the trophic levels
Energy flow diagram
The movement of energy around an ecosystem by biotic and abiotic means.
Explain the process of eutrophication, and discuss why it is of concern.
When water becomes overloaded with nutrients, these nutrients take away from the dissolved oxygen in the water and make it impossible for other organisms to thrive
Completion the Question: Considering the biogeochemical cycles, the
element called _________________has no gaseous phase, and thus no atmospheric component.
Describe/discuss the key features of the following biogeochemical cycle: Phosphorus cycle (5)
Phosphorus is required by all organisms
• Occurs in nucleic acids, membranes, ATP
- No significant gas form
- Exists as PO43- in ecosystems
- Plants and algae use free inorganic phosphorus; animals eat plants to obtain their phosphorus
Describe/discuss the key features of the following biogeochemical cycle: Carbon cycle (3)
Metabolic reactions that make nongaseous compounds from gaseous ones
- Aerobic cellular respiration releases CO2
- Methanogens: produce methane (CH4) by anaerobic cellular respiration
Describe/discuss the key features of the following biogeochemical cycle: Nitrogen Cycle (7)
Atmosphere is 78% nitrogen
Nitrogen fixation: synthesis of nitrogen- containing compounds from
- Nitrification: N2 → NH3 → NO3-
- Denitrification: NO3- → N2
- Both processes are carried out by
microbes: free or living on plant roots
- Nitrogenous wastes and fertilizer use radically alter the global nitrogen cycle
- Humans have doubled the rate of transfer of N2 in usable forms into soils and water
Describe/discuss the key features of the following biogeochemical cycle: Water Cycle (5)
All life depends on the presence of water
- 60% of the adult human body weight is water
- Amount of water available determines the nature and abundance of organisms present
- It can be synthesized and broken down • Synthesized during cellular respiration • Broken down during photosynthesis
Deforestation disrupts the local water cycle
Compare autotroph and heterotroph
Autotrophs are "self-feeders"synthesizethe organic compounds of their bodies from inorganic precursors, heterotrophs cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic precursors
Compare primary consumer and secondary consumer
Primary consumers make their own food, secondary consumers eat primary consumers for energy
Compare herbivores and carnivores
Herbivores eat solely plants (primary consumers) and carnivores eat herbivores and other carnivores
Compare food chain and food web
FOOD CHAINS FOLLOW A SINGLE PATH AS ANIMALS EAT EACH OTHER while FOOD WEBS SHOW HOW PLANTS & ANIMALS ARE INTERCONNECTED BY DIFFERENT PATHS.
Compare pyramid of biomass and pyramid of energy
The pyramid of energy shows the amount of energy an organism has as it goes through the trophic levels and the pyramid of biomass is a more accurate representation of the flow of energy through a food chain than a pyramid of numbers, but seasonal variations in the rate of turnover of the organisms can make it inaccurate
Compare gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP)
GPP is the raw rate at which primary producers synthesize new organic matter, NPP is the GPP minus the respiration of the primary producers
What are the three major types of symbiosis?
Commensalism, Mutualism, Parasitism
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy is neither created nor destroyed; it changes forms
What is the second law of thermodynamics
Any energy transfer or transformation from one form to another increases the degree of disorder of a system, called entropy
studies how interactions among species and between species and the abiotic environment affect community structure
The number of species present in a sample, community, or taxonomic group
Species whose effects on the composition of communities are greater than one might expect based on their abundance (ex. beavers)
The rate at which energy is converted by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs to organic substances.
Communities have a tendency to change from simple to complex
What is an ecological niche (6)
The total of all the ways an organism uses the resources of its environment
- Space utilization
- Food consumption
- Temperature range
- Appropriate conditions for mating
- Requirements for moisture and more
An ecological community in which populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in balance with each other and their environment
Consuming of one organism by another
The influence of closely associated species on each other in their evolution.
help nonpoisonous animals blend with their surroundings
Evolutionary change in species in response to selection pressures generated by interspecific competition.
Differences in morphology evident between sympatric
- May play a role in adaptive radiation
allows one species to capitalize on defensive strategies of another by resembling distasteful species that exhibit warning coloration
Benefits one species and is neutral to the other
Potential for coevolution
Species that occur at any particular locality
Compare primary succession and secondary succession
Secondary succession occurs in areas where an existing community has been disturbed but organisms still remain and primary succession occurs on bare, lifeless substrate
Compare mimicry and cryptic coloration
Cryptic coloration helps nonpoisonous animals blend with their surroundings while mimicry allows one species to capitalize on defensive strategies of another by resembling distasteful species that exhibit warning coloration
Describe/discuss the significance of Georgii Gause's experiment with three Paramecium species relative to competition (pp. 1188-1189 and Fig. 56.5, p. 1189).
Paramecium caudatum and P. bursaria - Expected same results
- Both species survived
- Realized niche did not overlap too much
No two species can occupy identical niches indefinitely when resources are limiting.
Why can invasive species have such strong effects on native prey?
They can kill and eat the prey in addition to the predators and since they don't have many predators in this new land they can seriously decrease the prey population
Compare intraspecific competition and interspecific competition
Intraspecific competition involves individuals of the same species and interspecific competition involves individuals of different species
Compare parasitism and mutualism
Mutualism benefits both species while parasitism benefits one species at the expense of another
Compare fundamental niche and realized niche
Fundamental niche is the entire niche that a species is capable of using, based on physiological tolerance limits and resource needs and the realized niche is the actual set of environmental conditions, presence or absence of other species, in which the species can establish a stable population
Georgii Gause concluded that two species with exactly the same requirements cannot occupy the same niche. Discuss/explain how morphological or behavioral differences may allow related species to co-exist (pp. 1189-1191).
• Discuss/describe plant adaptations that defend against herbivory.
• Discuss animal adaptations that defend against predation.
If resources aren't limited than it doesn't matter how many animals are in that niche, however usually the least evolved animal is the one that gets removed as it is the easiest to prey upon.
Chemical: Oils, chemicals to attract predators to eat the herbivores, poison milky sap
What they feed on (ex. Monarchs and Dogsbane, makes birds sick), toxins (poison dart frogs), bright coloration (mimicry to) and camouflage
Principle of competitive exclusion
If two species are competing for a limited resource, the species that uses the resource more efficiently will eventually eliminate the other locally
the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings.
When global temperatures increase
A major type of ecosystem on land
The atmosphere allows in short wave radiant energy from the Sun, but does not allow the long wave radiant energy from the Earth to escape
occur in subtropical and tropical latitudes
- Defining feature is stony corals
Water high in nutrients, densely populated with algae and plant material
Carbon, methane, and nitrous oxide
Tropical rain forest
Richest ecosystems on land
- High temperature and high rainfall
- Very high diversity: 1,200 species of butterflies in a single square mile
Both stretch in unbroken circles around the entire globe
highly effective insecticide, sprayed in United States after WWII
Warm water is less dense than cold water and tends to float on top; layering is stratification
over Antarctica between 1/2 to 1/3 of original ozone concentrations are present
concentrations of certain things in the food chain
Compare biotic interactions and abiotic interactions
Biotic interactions are how organisms interact with each other and abiotic interactions are how organisms interact with non-living pieces of their ecosystem
Compare desert and savanna
Deserts get very little water and only appear at certain latitudes while savannas are an in-between biome that gets much more and more dependable rain fall
Compare continental shelf and pelagic zone
The continental shelf is the slope of the ocean floor within the pelagic zone
Discuss the relationship between altitude and latitude in determining the characteristics of biomes.
Because latitude determines factors like temperature, weather and climate, there's a direct correlation on the success of vegetation species and their latitude. For instance, deserts and rain shadows/ ecuador
Discuss the significance of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the decline of bird populations during the mid-twentieth century.
Predatory bird species were endangered because it made their eggshells so thin that the shells broke during incubation
The greenhouse effect is caused by a group of atmospheric gases that together make up less than 1% of the total volume of the atmosphere.
a) What are those gases?
Carbon, methane, nitrous oxide,
The greenhouse effect is caused by a group of atmospheric gases that together make up less than 1% of the total volume of the atmosphere.
b) Considering the stated total volume of the above gases, what is the basis of the concern that most greenhouse gases have increased in atmospheric concentration since industrial times?
Nitrogen and oxygen, which account for about 99% of the volume of the atmosphere, are essentially transparent to infrared radiation. But greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation and re-emit it in all directions. Some of the infrared radiation that would otherwise directly escape to space is emitted back toward the surface.
What are the 8 principle biomes?
Tropical rainforest, Savanna, Desert, Temperate grassland, Temperate deciduous forest, Temperate evergreen forest, Taiga, Tundra
How many cm of rain does the rainforest get a year?
140-450 cm rain/yr
How many cm of rain does the savanna get a year?
50-125 cm rainfall/yr
Tropical or subtropical grasslands
- Occur as a transition ecosystem between tropical rainforests and deserts
- Serengeti of East Africa
How many cm of rain does the desert get a year?
25-40 cm rainfall/yr; unpredictable
30 ̊N and S latitudes - due to global air circulation patterns
- Due to rain shadows
- Vegetation sparse, animals adapted to little water availability
How much does the temp. fall for every 1,000 feet elevation?
Temperate Grasslands or Prairies (4)
- Grasses with roots that penetrate deep into the soil
- In North America converted to agricultural use
- Adapted to periodic fire
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Mild but seasonal climates (warm summers and cold winters), plus plentiful rains
Temperate Evergreen Forests
Occur along coastlines with temperate climates
low in nutrients, usually high in oxygen (clear)
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
2-7 years on an irregular and unpredictable basis
- Coastline waters become profoundly warm
- Primary productivity unusually low
- Weakening of the east-to-west Trade Winds
- Upwelling continues, but only recirculates the thick, warm surface layer