Baker v. Carr
"One man, one vote;" ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; reapportionment.
Betts v. Brady
The Court ruled that the previously discovered right to counsel provided by the 14th Amendment does not compel states to provide counsel to any defendant. The right to counsel merely prevented the state from interfering in a defendant's request for representation rather than requiring a state to offer counsel.
Brown v. Board of Education
The Court held that segregated schools violated "separate but equal" and was unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education II
This case laid out how desegregation would take place. "With all deliberate speed."
Gideon v. Wainwright
Required that attorneys be provided to citizens as part of their due process rights. Extended right of attorney to all felony charges, not just federal crimes. Overturned Betts v. Brady.
Gitlow v. New York
First Supreme Court case to nationalize part of the Bill of the Rights. Used 14th Amendment to justify.
Griswald v. Connecticut
First Supreme Court case that established a constitutional right of privacy, and paved the way for the landmark ruling on abortion. Privacy embedded in Bill of Rights.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
The Court held that the Commerce Clause allowed Congress to regulate incidents of commerce, and that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed constitutional muster.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
The Supreme Court Justices created a three prong test to better evaluate separation of church and state issues.
Mapp v. Ohio
Incorporated exclusionary rule, which prevents illegally seized evidence from being used in court.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Allowed for the expansion of federal power over the states through new interpretation of the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution.
Miller v. California
Clarified what could be obscene. Established a three prong test for Justices to use when faced with questions of obscenity. No serious artistic intent, offensive, and adapted to local standards/communities.
Miranda v. Arizona
Established the requirement that criminal suspects be read their rights at the time of their arrest. Remain silent and right to an attorney.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose "unique burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe v. Wade, but gave states more leeway in regulating abortion.
Schenk v. US
Government can limit speech if it provides "clear and present danger" of evils Congress has a right to prevent.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg
Established that bussing to overcome de facto segregation was unconstitutional.
University of California Regents v. Bakke
This landmark ruling on affirmative action declared the use of quotas to be unconstitutional.
Texas v. Johnson
The Supreme Court Justices declared that symbolic speech should be the most protected form of speech.
Tinker v. Des Moines
Established the 1st Amendment protections of symbolic free speech. Symbolic speech in public schools could be punished, but only if it disrupts the educational process.
US v. Nixon
Upheld the principle of executive privilege, but declared that the right was not unqualified.
Wallace v. Jeffree
The Court held that Alabama's passage of the prayer and meditation statute was not only a deviation from the state's dity to maintain absolute neutrality toward religion, but was an affirmative endorsement of religion. As such, the statute clearly lacked any secular purpose as it sought to establish religion in public schools, thereby violating the 1st Amendment's Establishment Clause.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
Upheld Missouri law severely restricting abortions. Specifically forbid use of state funds on employees to have an abortion.
West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette
Compelling school children to salute the flag is unconstitutional.
Wesbury v. Sanders
Ordered House of Representative legislative districts to be as near in population as possible; extended Baker v. Carr, "one man, one vote," to the national government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Established broad definition of "commerce" as more than buying and selling goods; the Commerce Clause; Congress regulates trade between states; supremacy of national government over states.
Reynolds v. US
Rules that religious duty is not sufficient defense against criminal charges of polygamy. Freedom of Religion.
New Jersey v. TLO
Permits school officials to search student property with standard of "reasonable suspicion."
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
Upholds the authority of public school administrators to censor student newspapers since they are tools of learning -- not forums of free expression. Freedom of Press.
Bethel v. Fraser
Declares student speech is not protected by the 1st Amendment if it lacks value and is "disruptive of learning." Freedom of Speech.
McDonald v. Chicago
The Court held that the right of an individual "to keep and bear arms" protected by the 2nd Amendment is incorporated by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment and applies to the states.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
Held that corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited because of the 1st Amendment. The Court struck down a provision of the McCain-Feingold Act that prohibited all corporations, both for-profit and not-for-profit, and unions from broadcasting "electioneering communications."