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Optic nerve

sends impulses to cerebrum

Blind spot

retina attaches to nerve, no vision


max vision


layer of receptor cells (rods and cones) that line back of the eye; changes light to impulses

What are rods and cones?

receptor cells in the retina that send impulses to cerebrum which turns image right-side up.

Which receptor cells work best in dim light?

Rod cells - they enable you to see black, white, and shades of gray.

Aqueous humor

shapes cornea


allows light to enter; size of pupil adjusted by muscles in the iris.


clear tissue that covers the front of the eye and bends light into pupil


flexible structure that focuses light onto retina


controls amount of light entering into the eye - is as individual as a finger print and even more detailed.

Ciliary muscles

pull lens for focusing

Vitreous humor

shapes eyeball; holds retina


protective covering


blood vessels


trouble seeing objects far away; concave lens for correction


trouble seeing objects close up; convex lens for correction

What is the function of ears

sense organs that respond to stimulus of sound; ears convert sound to nerve impulses that your brain interprets

What are the three regions of the ear

outer ear, middle ear, inner ear

describe the outer ear

funnel-shaped to collect sound

describe the middle ear

consists of the eardrum, hammer, anvil and stirrup

What is the function of the eardrum

separates the outer ear from the middle ear; it's a membrane that vibrates when sound strikes it

What is the function of the hammer, anvil and stirrup

smallest bones in the body that occur in the middle ear; vibration passes from the hammer to the anvil to the strirrup.

What is the function of the cochlea

Occurs in the inner ear; tranfers impulses to the brain through the auditory nerve

What are the semicircular canals?

structures in the inner ear that controls balance

How are the senses of smell and taste similar?

Work closely together; both depend upon chemicals in the air and in food. The chemicals trigger responses in receptors in the nose and mouth.

How is information about smell sent to the brain?

THrough the olfactory nerve

What basic tastes can the tongue distinguish

sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (brothy and meaty flavors)

WHat is the largest sense organ


WHat kind of receptors does the skin have?

different kinds that respond to a number of stimuli.

Where are receptors that respond to light touch and texture located?

upper part of the dermis

Where are receptors located that repond to pressure

Deeper in the dermis

What other receptors are located in the dermis

heat, pain and cold

What is concidered to be a drug?

anything other than food that affects the body, primarily the nervous system.

What is considered to be a medicine?

drugs that treat medical problems

What are the two classes of medicine?

prescription and OTC

What do stimulants do to your body and give examples?

speed up CNS. Cocaine, nicotine, caffine

What do depressants do to your body and give examples?

slow down CNS. Alcohol, heroin

What do inhalents and hallucinogens do to your body and give examples?

altre perception. LSD, paint thinner

What do anabolic steroids do to your body and give examples?

increase muscle and strength. Heart and liver damage

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