The increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change is:
Key multinational organizations that facilitate the flow of goods and capital across international boundaries include the:
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO).
One of the leading criticisms against globalization is that it:
Increases inequity between rich and poor.
Rapid population growth is a serious concern for some nations. However, some nations with no natural increase in population still have growing populations due to:
Demographic transition is:
A four-stage model that tracks changes in birth- and death rates through time as a population urbanizes.
Population pyramids are useful because they:
Compare the number of males vs. females in a given population, and compare the number of young to old in that same group.
Currently, migrants account for about _____ of the world's total population. Of these, roughly _____ are refugees from civil strife.
2 percent; 20 percent
As people in developing countries move from the countryside to cities, they should expect major changes in all of the following EXCEPT:
Hinduism is all of the following EXCEPT:
A universalizing religion, which actively seeks new converts.
A relatively homogenous cultural group with its own fully independent political territory is a:
Many forces tend to hold a nation together or were factors in nation-building due to their advantages. Which of the following are considered centripetal forces that promote political unity and reinforce the state structure?
Shared sense of history, need for military security, and advantages that come from a larger, unified political structure.
Political boundaries that follow cultural traits such as language or religion are:
The U.S.-led war on global terrorism involves:
Asymmetrical warfare, where superpower military technology and strategy must face lower-level technology and nontraditional tactics.
The process of gaining control over territory and establishing a separate government, independent from the colonial power.
The core-periphery model was developed to explain why, until recently, most economic development was centered in North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Of the following, which is NOT an assumption of this model?
Former colonies in the periphery may prosper at the expense of core states.
Gross national income (GNI) is an incomplete or misleading economic indicator because it ignores:
Nonmarket economic activity, ecological degradation or depletion of natural resources.
In order to obtain a sense of the true cost of living in an area, one can adjust raw economic data to create a comparable figure for a common market basket of goods and services purchased with local currency. This adjustment is called:
Purchasing Power Parity.
Which of the following is NOT an indicator of regional or national social development?
Number of live births per 1,000 population.
In many countries, work performed by women is not completely included in economic statistics measuring employment or productivity because:
Household and agricultural work is generally unpaid.
Weather is a _____ while climate is a _____.
Short-term expression of atmospheric processes; Long-term summation of average conditions.
Greenhouse gases primarily include:
Carbon Dioxide and Chlorofluorocarbons. Also Methane and Nitrous Oxides.
Opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, which attempts to control greenhouse gas emissions, results from concerns that international emission controls will:
Limit economic growth, slow economic development, increase the cost of living, and unfairly target certain countries, such as the US, but not other countries, such as China.
Tropical forest soils are _____ for intensive agriculture because nutrients are stored in _____.
Poorly-suited; living plants rather than topsoil.
Currently, about half of all tropical forest timber is used in _____ for _____.
Japan; throwaway items.
According to the United Nations, the percentage of grassland or rangeland threatened by desertification is:
In North America, temperate forests are:
Often on public lands, raising questions about appropriate use of tax-funded forests, hardwood deciduous trees, softwood conifer trees, and habitat for endangered species
The Green Revolution involves:
Reduction in time to allow fields to rest between plantings, increased applications of water, fertilizers and pesticides, and
change from traditional crops to higher-yield single crops.
An assemblage of local plants and animals that is closely connected with a climate region is a(n):
Biome (or bioregion).
Deforestation is occurring at substantial rates in tropical forests around the globe because of:
Increased population, globalization, cattle ranching, and
increased demand for wood products.
Desertification (the spread of desert-like conditions) is:
Currently threatening about 60% of the world's rangelands.
Subsistence agriculture differs from industrial agriculture in that it:
Produces only enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival.
The Green Revolution has allowed food production to keep pace with increasing population numbers by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
Decreasing the number of irrigated fields worldwide.
While more countries are increasingly willing to sign international agreements to solve environmental problems, critics of globalization contend that:
Trade agreements to promote free trade often conflict with national and local environmental protection.
Both Canada and the United States have postindustrial economies characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
Loss of distinctive popular cultures.
Although home to only about 6 percent of the world's population, North America consumes what percentage of the world's commercial energy budget?
California's largest lake, the Salton Sea, is an example of unintended consequences. It was formed:
Due to an irrigation project accident in 1905.
North America's physical geography is incredibly diverse, with a variety of natural hazards EXCEPT:
Growth of ice sheets.
North America's climate and vegetation is characterized by all of the following BUT:
The Ogallala Aquifer irrigates about _____ of all U.S. cropland. Elsewhere in the U.S., roughly _____ of water resources are used by manufacturing and energy production while _____ is used for homes and businesses.
20%; 45%; 15%.
Key environmental issues which threaten North America include:
The impact of acid rain on sensitive lake environments in the east, hazardous waste sites, soil degradation, and endangered and polluted rivers.
Environmental initiatives in Canada and the U.S. since 1970 have resulted in:
Improved water quality of the Great Lakes and tougher air quality standards
While more than 75% of North Americans live in urban areas, there is a trend among those with sufficient wealth and mobility to move to less populated areas. This trend is called _____ and is led by _____ and _____.
Counterurbanization; retirees; lifestyle migrants.
Changes in transportation technologies and urban income levels have transformed North American cities to include:
Suburban downtowns, gentrification, edge cities, and Central Business District (CBD).
Rural North America is characterized by :
Expanding edge cities, fewer but larger farms, and rectangular patterns from township-and-range survey system.
Migration into and within a region changes the ethnic composition of that region. For North America, which of the following is NOT true?
The U.S. is the ninth-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world.
Canada's Inuit population governs its own territory in a persisting cultural homeland called:
Based on percentage of the population, the SECOND-MOST dominant religion in North America is:
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) signed in 1994 reduced barriers to trade and investment among Canada, the United States, and:
Unitary states (like France) centralize political power at the national level. Federal states (like Canada and the U.S.):
Allocate considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level.
In 1995, which Canadian province tried to secede from the rest of that North American country and become an independent state?
While the United States produces about _____ of the world's oil, it consumes more than _____ and must import _____ of its oil.
12%; 25%; more than half
Improvements in communications and transportation technologies radically transformed North America through connectivity, which linked to other regions by:
Undersea cables for telegraph lines, airports and jet aircraft, and computer, satellite, and Internet technologies.
Sectoral transformation describes the evolution of a country's labor force from dependence on one economic sector to another. Sectors include all BUT:
Employment by the government.
Silicon Valley is now North America's leading region of manufacturing exports, in part due to:
Access to innovation and research by local universities and industries.
While Canada's leading global exports are _____ and _____, leading exports for the U.S. are _____.
Raw materials; manufactured goods; software and entertainment products.
Since 1980, poverty levels have declined in both the United States and Canada, yet pockets of poverty persist. Poor people are more likely to bear the risks and costs of specific health-care problems in part because:
Despite increases in female-headed single-parent families, women are generally paid only 65%-75% of what men generally earn and the fastest-growing segment of the population are elderly, who are more susceptible to chronic diseases associated with aging.
This region is called Latin America:
To distinguish the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking republics of the Americas from the English-speaking ones.
All of the following can be found in Latin America EXCEPT:
Seven times the population of India, in a landmass twice as large.
Tropical rainforests, which contain at least 50% of the world's species, are threatened by all of the following EXCEPT:
Mexico City is the capital of Mexico and its primary city. Which of the following statements about it is NOT true?
Mexico City is actively limiting the number of new residents to 100,000 annually.
The "green city" of Brazil, whose city planners emphasize low pollution, good public transportation, open space, and recycling, is:
El Niño is a weather phenomenon that:
Comes from an abnormally large warm Pacific current that usually arrives along coastal Ecuador and Peru in December.
When describing the urban form of Latin American cities, the term "elite spine" refers to:
The strip of newer businesses extending from the colonial core to the newest parts of a city.
The entrenched practice of maintaining large estates is called _____, while the practice of farming small plots for subsistence is _____.
What are the factors leading to the potential for continued high population growth in Latin America?
Immigration and the relatively large size of the population group below the age of 15.
An area where native populations define their own territory as well as assert political and resource control is called:
Which of the following did NOT contribute to the demographic collapse of native populations after 1500?
Slaves imported from Africa.
The majority of Latin Americans speak Spanish rather than Portuguese as a legacy of the:
Treaty of Tordesillas.
In addition to a trend toward democracy since 1980, Latin American states have been:
Opening their markets to international trade, broadening public participation in the political process, and demonstrating more willingness to set aside old rivalries.
Trade blocks, such as LAFTA and CACM, are examples of supranational organizations. Subnational organizations are represented by groups like:
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia).
Widespread drug production and trafficking throughout the region exert social damage by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
Decentralizing into small productive syndicates.
Failed development policies throughout Latin America included all of the following EXCEPT:
Establishment of maquiladoras and other manufacturing plants.
Profitable extraction of natural resources through Latin America includes:
Mining of gold and other precious metals, logging, oil production, and sustainable production of exotic woods.
One of the major factors showing the changing status of women in Latin America is:
Increasing political representation in cooperatives, unions and governments.
Besides the Caribbean Islands, which of the following is (are) also considered part of the Caribbean?
Suriname, Belize, Guyana, and French Guiana
Since most countries and territories in the Caribbean are separate islands, yet close to North and South America, they experience both cultural diversity and limited economic opportunities due to:
All of the following statements about Haiti are true EXCEPT:
Haiti became independent from France in 1979, along with St. Lucia and St. Vincent.
Throughout the Caribbean, environmental issues are attributed to:
Agricultural practices and soil erosion, excessive reliance upon wood fuels, such as charcoal, and water and air pollution associated with urban sprawl.
Belize is unique in the Caribbean because:
Local farmers created a wildlife sanctuary for monkeys, the first jaguar preserve in the Americas is located there, and it is neither an island country nor part of South America.
The Greater Antilles contains the four largest islands in the Caribbean. They include all BUT:
The Lesser Antilles are volcanic in origin, including at least one island with a currently active volcano. Just east of the volcanic arc are:
Four low-lying islands with soils ideal for growing sugarcane.
Fertility decline throughout the Caribbean is due to all of the following factors EXCEPT:
Decrease in poverty rates with accompanying rise in social stability.
The Caribbean Diaspora includes movement within the region as well as movement to other regions. The most popular destination for people from Haiti is _____ while people in neighboring Dominican Republic prefer to go to _____.
Dominican Republic; United States.
Due to its unique political and economic system, the only country in the Caribbean not to suffer from overcrowded cities and squatter settlements is:
Which of the following characteristics does NOT represent plantation America?
Moderately industrialized, with manufacturing facilities owned by absentee landlords.
Another legacy of colonialism in the Caribbean was the migration of indentured laborers to replace freed slaves in the mid-1800's. All of the following colonial relationships were correct EXCEPT:
French Guiana imported labor from China.
Although short-lived, maroon societies were all of the following BUT:
Failures because their people were enslaved and communities destroyed.
Afro-religious traditions in the Caribbean include:
Voodoo (Vodoun), Santeria, Obeah, and Candomble.
Blended languages spoken by island natives throughout the Caribbean include all of the following BUT:
Haitian ra-ra music is:
Highly political, with references to Voodoo and African pride and a mixture of percussion, saxophones and bamboo trumpets.
Since the declaration of the _____, the United States has claimed the Caribbean within its sphere of influence and currently maintains _____ and _____ as U.S. territories.
Monroe Doctrine; Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands
U.S. development packages for the Caribbean since 1900 include all of the following EXCEPT:
Free Trade Area of the Americas (2005; proposed).
Puerto Rico is unique in the Caribbean for:
Commonwealth rather than territory status within the United States and a significantly higher per capita income than its neighbors.
Is made possible by improving telecommunications and client demand and attracts drug money and money laundering.
Caribbean countries generate revenue from all of the following EXCEPT:
Sale of Internet domain names.
While Caribbean countries suffer economic loss from educated professionals leaving the region for work in more developed countries, called _____, they gain considerable revenue from income sent from guest workers in those countries back to their home communities, called _____.
Brain drain; remittances
Sub-Saharan Africa is united as a world region by:
Similar livelihood systems and shared colonial experience.
A zone of ecological transition from dry desert conditions in the north and wetter conditions in the south, the Sahel faces increased desertification due to:
Peanut farming, which depletes key nutrients out of the soil and forces farmers to continually seek new land and year-round grazing, resulting from new deep wells but leading to more erosion and land degradation.
Since most household energy needs (cooking, heating, etc.) are met by burning wood, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT:
Deforestation is occurring but is not worrisome because the rain forests are vast enough to accommodate large-scale logging for several more decades.
While southern Africa has been most successful in maintaining large populations of elephants, wildlife conservation is difficult due to all of the following EXCEPT:
Legal ivory sales.
Which of the following best characterizes the physical environment of Sub-Saharan Africa?
Vast elevated plateaus that are higher in eastern Africa and lower in western Africa.
While life expectancy in much of Sub-Saharan Africa is low, population growth rates are high. As a result, the overall percentage of people under age 15 is _____ while overall percentage of people over age 65 is _____.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for large family sizes in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Roughly 2/3 of all people infected with HIV/AIDS live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Successful strategies to prevent further spread of the disease includes all of the following EXCEPT:
Increased access to generic drug therapies.
Some of the problems faced by Sub-Saharan African cities include all of the following EXCEPT:
Proliferation of small cities competing for migrant workers.
While no institutionalized form of religion ever came close to unifying the region, many indigenous expressions of religious devotion are grouped together as:
Until the discovery of _____ in the 1850s, roughly half of all Europeans who lived on the African mainland died within a year, mainly due to diseases like _____.
The "Scramble for Africa" by European colonial powers culminated in the 1884 _____, where Sub-Saharan Africa was carved up for exploitation. By 1913, the only countries to remain independent and ruled by blacks were _____ and _____.
Berlin Conference; Liberia; Ethiopia.
During the years when South Africa was segregated by the policy of apartheid (1948-1994), whites managed social interaction by controlling space, including:
Separate entrances for use based on skin color or ancestry, urban residential sectors, where skin color could be used to deny employment or admittance, forcible relocation of blacks into townships and homelands, and denying blacks citizenship, since technically they were citizens of their assigned homelands.
Unlike refugees, _____ do not qualify easily for international humanitarian aid because they continue to reside in their country of origin.
Internally displaced persons.
More than 10 years after ethnic genocide in Rwanda, several states in central Africa face _____ and increasing numbers of _____ as well as _____ economic output.
Continued civil unrest; displaced people; plummeting.
Roots of African poverty are NOT likely to include:
Environmental factors, such as poor soils and erratic rainfall patterns.
Individual Africans are improving their links to the world economy by increasing their:
Use of mobile phones that do not rely on fixed telephone lines and inflow of private capital.
Social development throughout Sub-Saharan Africa is complicated by all of the following EXCEPT:
Increasing numbers of community organizations.
Southwest Asia and North Africa are a key global culture hearth, where many cultural innovations developed and diffused widely to other parts of the world, including:
Urban-based civilization, domestication of wheat and cattle, birth of three religions, and development of water and oil resources.
Which of the following associations between place and physical landform is NOT correct?
Levant and Arabian Peninsula
Countries that share aquifers, rivers, or drainage basins are constantly dealing with the interplay between water resource issues and politics, also known as:
People in this region have adapted to the regional environment through:
Pastoral nomadism, oasis settlement, and dry farming and irrigated agriculture.
Traditional attributes of a characteristic Islamic city include the:
Medina, a walled urban core dominated by a central mosque and associated buildings, suq, a marketplace or bazaar where goods and services are traded, housing districts that maximize shade and accentuate privacy, and houses with small windows that typically open inward to private courtyards.
Migration into, within, and out of the region occurs in all of the following patterns EXCEPT:
Urban-to-rural migration to relieve city overcrowding.
The _____, the holiest book of Islam, is a compilation of divine revelations received by _____ from _____.
Quran; Muhammad; Allah.
Main differences between Sunni and Shiite Muslims include:
Shiites believe that only members of Muhammad's family were legitimate successors to him, while Sunnis felt that established clergy were acceptable successors to Muhammad.
Religions other than Islam represented in the region include all of the following EXCEPT:
Armenian Orthodox Christianity in Morocco.
Evidence of globalization in North Africa and Southwest Asia includes all of the following EXCEPT:
Greater oil wealth,
The only countries in Southwest Asia and North Africa to successfully resist European colonization were:
Persia (Iran) and Turkey.
Jewish migration into what is now Israel increased after Britain took Palestine from the Ottoman Empire in 1917 and issued a pledge to encourage the "establishment of Palestine as a home for the Jewish people," known as the:
Sudan emerged as a center of Islamic fundamentalism in the region as a result of:
1989 overthrow of democratic government by theocratic regime and 2001 recognition of Al Qaeda cells in Sudan.
Cyprus is divided along a Green Line separating ethnic _____ in the north from ethnic _____ in the south.
Saudi Arabia is the leading country within OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) because it controls what percent of the world's known oil supplies?
Countries in Southwest Asia and North Africa that are prospering without oil revenue include all of the following BUT:
Tunisia has acheived relative economic stability without the benefit of large oil reserves by:
Diversifying its economy into agriculture, tourism and manufacturing and increasing private investment and participation in global markets.
Morocco faces several problems, including:
Widespread illiteracy and brain drain, as best-educated young people leave for employment opportunities in other countries
The only country in the region to do better in many social measures than might be expected on the basis of per capita gross national income is:
While female labor force participation rates are generally the lowest in the world, women throughout the region are seeing:
Increasing educational opportunities, increasing employment opportunities, especially at-home work over the Internet, and modest Western dress is becoming more acceptable.
Despite environmental and cultural risks, tourism is becoming increasingly important throughout the region. Areas already very reliant on tourism revenue include all BUT:
Great Man-Made River, Libya.
Regional agreements and organizations within the region include all BUT:
Organization of African States (OAS).
While the concept of the nation-state first developed in central Europe hundreds of years ago, modern European states struggle with:
Regional integration, global convergence, national interests, and changing forms of government.
European landforms can be organized into four general topographic categories, including all of the following BUT:
Continental Glacier Basin.
From Norway to Portugal, the North Atlantic Current moderates coastal temperatures to produce a:
Marine west coast climate.
Europe remains a maritime region with strong ties to its surrounding seas. Even some landlocked countries have access to the seas through:
A network of navigable rivers and canals.
Europe's core areas have different land use than its peripheral areas. The periphery tends to be less _____ and more _____.
Migrants into Western Europe include:
Job seekers from former European colonies, guestworkers from other world regions, economic migrants from Eastern Europe, and war refugees.
Modern European cities often reflect different historical periods through:
Cramped housing with few modern facilities, tall structures within defensive walls, and Industrial areas in traditionally suburban locations.
"The Troubles" in Northern Ireland are mainly the result of all of the following BUT:
Total failure of the 1998 Good Friday Accords.
France's attempts to protect its unique culture include all of the following EXCEPT :
Closing all McDonald's restaurants to protest sale of U.S. hormone-treated beef.
Throughout the war-torn 20th century, the political map of Europe has been redrawn several times. One cause for political restructuring occurs when one state claims territory outside its own borders because people of the same ethnicity as they are live there. This is called:
Beginning in the 1700s, Europe was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, which relied heavily on abundant _____, _____, and _____.
Water; coal; iron ore.
Which of the following was NOT an organization that was a forerunner and/or became part of the European Union (EU)?
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA, also known as COMECON).
Various countries in Europe struggle with issues of greater national and local diversity versus greater regional and global integration. As a result, not all countries in the region have joined the _____ or use the _____ instead of their national currency.
European Union; Euro.
In Bulgaria, an Eastern European country struggling to succeed in the new global economy, 80-90 percent of the agricultural sector was converted during the Soviet era to:
State-owned communal farms.
While privatization and other moves toward economic health are necessary, these shifts in economic policy have resulted throughout Eastern Europe in:
Removal of subsidies and price supports, increased unemployment and underemployment, higher costs for food, rent and utilities, and loss of tariff protection against imports.
As the shift from communism to capitalism continues in Eastern Europe, successful economic transitions are taking place in all BUT:
Challenges facing Europe in the 21st century include all of the following EXCEPT:
Working to lower population growth, especially in affluent areas.
The Russian domain provides the world's largest example of a high-latitude continental climate. This explains why:
Growing seasons are short, limiting agricultural output, distances are large, making it difficult to transport goods across the region, and ports are limited, since northern coastlines are frozen most of the time.
The acidic soils found in Belarus and central portions of European Russia are called _____ soils. Further south, more fertile "black earth" soils are called _____.
Most of the major cities in the Russian domain lie along _____ or along the _____.
Large rivers; Trans-Siberian Railroad.
During the Soviet era, voluntary and involuntary resettlement of Russians into non-Russian areas was known as:
During the Soviet era, a number of planned residential zones were built in newly urban areas. Large massed blocks of apartment buildings intended to form self-contained communities were called:
Implications of Russia's demographic crisis include:
More elderly persons who will be supported by fewer productive workers, overall population loss throughout the Russian domain, and continued economic instability
As the Russian Empire grew, it assimilated or allied with all of the following groups EXCEPT the:
Throughout the Russian domain, a revival of interest in organized religions currently results in increased numbers of all of the following EXCEPT:
International music-industry corporations that recently opened operations in Russia include all of the following BUT:
In 1917, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, a faction of Russian communists called the _____ seized power. They reorganized the empire into 15 ethnic republics linked together as the _____.
Bolsheviks; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Soviet geopolitical structures unintentionally helped create local national identities through creation of ethnic:
Union republics and autonomous areas.
During the 1980s, President Gorbachev's plan for economic restructuring within the Soviet Union to make production more efficient was called:
The 1992 Russian Federation Treaty created a new internal political framework for Russia. Aside from islands, the only piece of territory to remain outside Russia's contiguous land area is:
While increased local political control has advantages, critics of devolution within the Russian Federation argue that it can lead to all of the following BUT:
More effective dealing with global political and economic affairs.
Benefits of the Soviet legacy throughout the Russia domain include all of the following BUT:
High industrial productivity.
Privatization reduces government involvement in people's lives, resulting in:
Private ownership of corporations and real estate and reduced tax revenue for national governments.
Russia's organized crime syndicates (mafia) are thought to control roughly _____ of Russia's banks and to engage in international _____ with U.S. and British banks.
80 percent; money-laundering schemes.
Health care issues throughout the Russian domain concern increases in all of the following diseases EXCEPT:
With 35% of the world's natural gas reserves, Russia also outpaces the U.S. in annual oil production. The region's major oil fields are in:
Volga Valley, Siberia, Far East, and Caspian Sea.