Chapter 4/5 us history
Terms in this set (73)
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Right to bear arms
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
Criminal Proceedings; Due Process; Eminent Domain; Double Jeopardy; Protection from Self incrimination
Amendment that prohibits excessive bail amounts and cruel and unusual punishment.
Right to life liberty and property and due process of law and equal protection under the law for all citizens.
Young officer in Virginia militia, first attack on french/Indian war war failed. Became a hero at age 22. Took leadership of British troops when Baddock was shot
Albany Plan of Union
Developed by committee led by Ben Franklin. Proposed colonies unite and form federal government
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Stamp Act Congress
- October 1765 issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances drafted by John Dickinson. Argued that only colonists political reps and not parliament had the right to tax them. Sent petition to King George for relief of parliament and repeal of stamp act.
-March 5, 177 colonists harassed British soldier guarding customs house, called for back up, troops fired, 5 dead & 6 wounded
French and Indian War
French and Indians vs. British over the Ohio River Valley. British victory.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Eliminated French power in North America except for a few small islands. Spain gave Florida to Britain
Why did British Tax he colonies after the war?
Britain was in debt and decided the colonies should pay for the war.
Reactions to British Taxes
Sons of Liberty, Boycott British goods, Harassing tax collectors.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies. Either in barracks or taverns, inns, vacant buildings or barns and colonists had to pay rent
(1766) Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. Parliament emphasized its authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.
passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.
legalized the use of writs of assistance- general search warrants that enabled customs officers to enter any location to look for evidence of smuggling
The Gaspee Affair
1772, a British customs schooner that had been enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water on June 9, 1772, near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island, while chasing the packet boat Hannah. A group of men led by Abraham Whipple and John Brown attacked, boarded, looted, and torched the ship.
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
In 1773, Boston rebels dumped 18,000 pounds of the East India Company's tea into the waters of Boston harbor as a protest, because the company was not being taxed to sell tea, but the colonial tea sellers were.
First Continental Congress
September 5 1774 met in Philadelphia. 55 delegates representing 12 colonies. some believed compromise possible, others ready to fight
Second Congressional Congress
voted to "adopt" militia army surrounding boston, naming it "Continental Army" and appointed George Washington as general and commander in chief
Declaration of Independence
July 4th 1776 from congressional congress declaring themselves the United States of America. Comittee composed of Tomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman And Robert Livingston submitted the document drafted by Jefferson. Started Revolution.
British Reaction to "Boston Tea Party"
Coercive Act intended to punish Massachusetts and end colonial challenge to British Authority
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Published by Tomas Paine January 1776
pamphlet attacking King George 3 as a tyrant and saying it was time to declare independence
sold 100,000 copies in 3 months and convinced many colonists to declare independence.
4 sections of Declaration
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence by the United States
The American Crisis
Written by Tomas Paine. A pamphlet to boost morale.
"These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will in this crisis shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman"
Where George Washington and the Continental Army spent the winter of 1777 and 2,500 men died of food shortages and cold.
American general who helped win the battle of Saratoga, was selling info to the British, when discovered he turned coats and was given command of British troops
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Well trained, well supplied army and navy
wealth of resources
strong central government
fighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory
fighting far from Britain and resources
half hearted support at home
Fighting on home ground
good decisions by generals
fighting for rights and freedoms
alliance with France; loans, navy, troops
food and ammunition shortages
weak and divided central government
General Howe's war strategy for British
Massive military build up in NY to intimidate and capture NY
Tell congressional conference that if they surrender and swear loyalty to king they will be pardoned
Christmas day 1776
Washington led 2,400 men across icy Delaware river attacking Hessians @ Trenton killing/capturing 1,000 men
Why was Saratoga turning point?
Convinced France to commit troops to the American cause
American strategy at sea
Attack merchant ships to hurt trade and economy
Treaty of Paris 1783
Britain recognized the United States of America
Britain gave Florida to Spain
France received colonies in Africa and the Caribbean
British troops leave America
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
Taxes on Imported goods
After war Americans wanted what kind of government?
Not a central government that would become tyranny
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
congress had no power to tax which caused weak currency and growing debt
Inability to pay army leads to threats of mutiny
Congress had no power to enforce treaties (makes other countries mad)
Every state had 2 vote, not equally represented
Amendment reqiured unanimous vote of state; difficult to adapt articles to changing needs
Cause of Shay's Rebellion
Massachusetts decided to raise taxes instead of issuing paper money to pay of debt. Farmers were heavily affected.
rule of the people.
Elected officials represented voice of the people
divided government between the federal government and the state governments
3 branches of government
Legislative, executive, judicial
Checks and Balances
Prevents any one of the 3 branches from getting too powerful. Each branch has ability to limit the power of the other branches
President can reject acts of congress
If necessary, congress can formally accuse of misconduct and then remove the president or any other high official in the executive or judicial branch
A series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
supporter of the constitution and federal system
large land owners who wanted the property protection a strong central government could provide
merchants and artisans living on the coast because they wanted taxes on foreign good so locals would buy their stuff
farmers wanted a government that could regulate trade consistently.
accepted need for national government, issue was weather national or state governments would be supreme. Believed constitutions should include bill of rights, worried constitution endangered independence of the states
back woods farmers suspicious of wealth and poverty and thought it was a way to take over their farms
Believed United States wouldn't survive w/o strong central government included George Washington, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison.
constitutional convention 1787
Sole purpose of revising the Articles of the Confederation. took place in Pennsylvania state house in Philadelphia. Goal: to blance the rights and aspirations of the states with the eed for a stronger national government.
The Virginia Plan
Scrapping Articles of Confederation to build new government with power to make laws and raise money through taxes.
3 branches, executive, legislative, judicial. Legislature split into 2 houses; voters elect members of 1st house. state governors nominate 2nd house members but actually elected by 1st house. both house number of reps based on population benefiting large states
New Jersey Plan
Modified Articles of Confederation to make central government stronger; single congress house with each state equally represented and power to raise taxes and regulate trade
1st house of congress - house of Representatives - states would be represented according to size of population. elected by eligible voters in each state
other house - dash Senate - each state would have equal representation. elected by state legislatures.
3 fifths Compomise
every 5 enslaved people would count as 3 free people for determining both representatives and taxes.
Process for Amending the Constitution
Proposed by vote of 2/3 of members of both houses of Congress or 2/3 of Constitutional Conventions in the states then proposed amendments ratified by 3/4 of legislatures or 3/4 of Conventions
Congress checks on President
impeach and remove President
Congress checks on courts
Confirm judicial appointments
impeach and remove judges
President checks on Congress
Call special sessions
President checks on courts
Pardons federal offenders
Court checks on Congress
Declare Congressional actions unconstitutional
Court checks on President
Declare Executive actions unconstitutional