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Politics of the United States
BJU USH Chapter 7"
Bob Jones Fourth Edition United States History published by BJU.
Terms in this set (61)
A close alliance of states.
Articles of Confederation
A written agreement ratified in 1781 by the 13 original states; 1st document to unite colonies under 1 government; very limited central government; settled dispute of western lands
having only one house, composed of one legislative body
Treaty of Paris
(1783) peace agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established Britain's formal recognition of the US
Area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes
Ordinance of 1784
Jefferson's proposal to create ten new states out of the NW Territory; ban slavery; give away land for free
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided the NW Territory into townships to facilitate the sale and development of land; Land sold for $1 per acre; $ from section 16 allocated to pay for schools.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
3-stage plan to to create states from NW territory: 1) Region under direct federal government control; 2) When territory had >5000 free inhabitants (elect legislature, send rep to Congress, governor appt by national government, could veto acts passed by territories legislation, Congressional rep had no vote); 3) Became state when had >60,000 free inhabitants (write a state constitution, be admitted to Union as state equal with others)
silver and gold
Paper money of little value which was printed by the national government.
A plot by officers in the Continental Army to force Congress to pay their salaries and pensions; they asked Washington to be a dictator.
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
Held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation. Prompted a new convention to remedy the weaknesses of the Confederation
His ideas provided much of the framework for the Constitution. Called "Father of the Constitution". He pledged to introduce amendments to the Constitution to protect citizens rights.
James Madison's bicameral plan of government with state representation in Congress based on their population; supported by large states
A legislature consisting of two parts or houses
New Jersey Plan
Unicameral plan that would have given each state one vote in a Congress; supported by small states
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
Roger Sherman's proposed that representation in the lower house be based on state population, whereas representation in the Senate be equal for all states regardless of size; solved problem of representation in Congress.
Slaves would count as three-fifths a person when determining representation in Congress and taxation.
Official restrictions on the powers of government; Principle that was most strongly supported by the Articles of Confederation.
separation of powers
The division of government into branches.
checks and balances
A balance of power between the different branches of government.
The division of power between national and state levels of government.
The belief that the ultimate source of governmental power is vested in the people.
The introduction to the Constitution.
The representatives who elect the president.
A change or addition to the Constitution.
Supporters of the Constitution
Opposed the Constitution
The secret name George Clinton, governor of New York, used to write in the newspaper articles denouncing the Constitution
Secret name used by Alexander Hamilton to refute Cato's articles
"The Federalist Papers"
Federalist essays compiled into two volumes to refute arguments published by Anti-federalists.
What type of federal government did the Articles of Confederation set up?
One house legislature (unicameral) Each state had 1 vote in the Congress. Congress elected and controlled president. No judicial branch.
What couldn't Congress do under the Articles of Confederation?
Congress couldn't regulate trade or collect taxes.
Why were the Articles of Confederation a failure?
The federal government was too WEAK and it had no revenue ($).
9 out of 13 states had to approve a proposal to become law.
The Federal government could not form a military or protect the country from rebellion-like Shay's rebellion.
Federal government was unable to honor its obligations in the Treaty of Paris
What were the 2 good things from the Articles of Confederation?
Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance.
What was the purpose and results of Constitutional Convention of 1787?
Goal was to revise the Articles of Confederation. Delegates from 12/13 states arrived.
They formed a new Constitution with a stronger central government.
It called for 3 branches of government: judicial, executive, bicameral legislature.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Purpose: to protect Americans against unfair use of government powers.
freedom of speech, religion, press. Right to bear arms, government can't force citizen to quarter soldiers, unlawful search of homes...
Who had the majority of power in the Articles of Confederation?
States had the majority of power.
Why was there debate over whether or not to ratify the Constitution?
Federalists wanted a strong Federal government.
Anti-Federalists thought the constitution weakened the state power and individual freedom.
Some wanted the Bill of Rights.
Some didn't like the President being able to be elected over and over. Could be like a King.
What did Federalist want?
Supporters of the New Constitution who wanted a strong federal government.
Why did Anti-federalists oppose the Constitution?
Thought the Constitution weakened the States; they wanted a Bill of Rights.
What was America's single greatest contribution to political thought?
Each colony jealously wanted to keep its own power.
Why did the colonists create a weak central government in the Confederation?
Which of the following disputes did the Confederation settle?
Calling a new convention to remedy the weaknesses of the Confederation
What was the most important accomplishment of the Annapolis Convention?
Which state refuesed to participate in the Constitutional Convention and was the last of the original colonies to ratify the Constitution?
members of the House of Representatives
In the original Constitution, who was elected directly by the people?
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Who were the of the authors of The Federalist Papers?
Who said, "Thus I consent, Sir, to this Constitution because I expect no better, and because I am not sure, that it is not the best"?
1) REPRESENTATION of states (the Great Compromise),
2) TRADE regulated by federal government
3) SLAVERY representation (Three-fifths Compromise).
When writing the Constitution, what were the 3 major issues of debate requiring compromises ?
Which region was most concerned about granting federal control over trade?
What were the 3 trade agreements concerning Congress that were settled in the Constitution?
Congress: 1) given power over foreign and interstate trade, 2) forbidden to impose export taxes on states, 3) forbidden to halt slave trade for 20 years.
What promise did James Madison make in order to get Virginia and New York to accept the Constitution?
promised to introduce amendments to Bill of Rights in first session of Congress.
What Biblical principle of man did the Constitutional framers recognize?
man has a sinful nature
Which were the last 2 MAJOR states to ratify the Constitution?
Virginia and New York
Through what 2 ways does the Constitutional express the principle of the people's sovereignty?
representation and amendments
How does representation express the people's sovereignty?
People have a voice in the republic government through elected officials
How do amendments express the people's sovereignty?
Amendments that survive the difficult ratification process represent widespread popular support
How is government power balanced in the Constitution?
Checks and balances between the 3 branches of government. The people have the power in representative government.
government at the national level
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