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Once the government had extended its control over the economy, it faced two major tasks:
- and convincing people to support the war.
Daylight savings time was introduced in
March 1918 originally proposed by Benjamin Franklin
WIB, WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD was under the leadership of
To deal with disputes between labor and management, the president established
the NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD
To help produce and conserve food, the Food Administration was set up under
Instead of rationing Herbert Hoover called for people to follow
the "gospel of the clean plate."
Gardens with vegetables, fruit, and herbs planted a private residences and public parks
Results of the victory gardens are
-American food shipments to the Allies tripled.
-Farmers put an additional 40 million acres into production.
Once The government raised about 1/3 of the money through higher taxes. It raised the rest through public borrowing by selling
LIBERTY LOANS and VICTORY LOANS.
To popularize the war, the government set up
CPI, COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION
A kind of biased communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions.
the CPI(Committee on public information) was
Under former muckranking(gossip) journalist GEORGE CREEL. and the nations first propaganda agency.
Creel recruited some 75,000 men to serve as_______who spoke about everything relating to the war
FOUR MINUTE MEN
As soon as war was declared Attacks on Civil Liberties erupted. The main targets being immigrants especially from
Germany and Austria-Hungary.
What happened After war was declared to anything German related
Americans with German names lost their jobs.
Orchestras refuse to play German composers.
Schools stopped teaching German.
a German born miner who was wrapped in a German flag and lynched. A jury declared the mob leader not guilty.
In June 1917, Congress passed the ESPIONAGE ACT and in May 1918, it passed the SEDITION ACT. Under these laws
A person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20yrs for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything "disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government."
The Espionage Act of 1917 was intended to
-prohibit interference with military operations or recruitment
-prevent insubordination in the military
-prevent the support if the United Stars enemies during wartime
In 1919, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled through Schenck v
United States that the Espionage act...
Did not violate the freedom of speech of those convicted under its provisions
The socialist party presidential candidate in 1904, 1908, and 1912
Eugene V Debs
____________was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison for making a speech that "obstructed recruiting". He ran for president again in 1920 from prison.
Eugene V Debs,
Their passage led to over 2,000 prosecutions for loosely defined antiwar activities. They targeted
socialists and labor leaders.
_______expanded the Espionage Act to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.
The Sedition Act of 1918
Treat something scared with irrelevance or disrespect
Making or spreading scandalous claims about someone with the intention of damaging their reputation
The sedition act forbade the use of________about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt.
Profane, scurrilous, or abusive language
Those convicted under the sedition act generally received
sentences of imprisonment for five to 20 years
the greatest effect of the war on African Americans, The large scale movement of hundreds of thousands southern blacks move to cities in the North.
The GREAT MIGRATION
Factors that contributed to the great migration
-Many sought to escape racial discrimination in the South, though it existed in the North as well.
-A boll weevil(beetle)infestation, aided by floods and droughts, had ruined much of the South's cotton fields.
-in the North, there were more job opportunities.
President Wilson acknowledged the_________It did not include equal pay, but it did bolster the cause of women's suffrage
"the services of women..."
In 1919, Congress finally passed the_______ granting women the right to vote. In 1920, it was ratified by the states.
After four years of slaughter and destruction, the time had come to forge a peace settlement. Americans hoped that this was
"the war to end all wars."
President Wilson's plan for world peace
Fourteen points was divided into 3 groups
-first 5 were to prevent another war
-next 8 dealt with boundary change
-the 14th called for the creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crisis.
The _____would provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to go to war. Later rejected by allies
LEAGUE OF NATIONS(judge)
Was determined to prevent future invasions
The French premier GEORGES CLEMENCEAU
"make Germany pay"
The British prime minister DAVID LIOUD GEORGE
Wanted control of Austrian hell territory
Italian prime minister VITTORIO
"Peace without victory"
USA President Woodrow Wilson
The peace conference did not include the defeated
Central powers (Germany Austria Hungary Ottoman Empire)
The big four
Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Orlando, worked out the treaty details among themselves.
President Wilson conceded almost all of his 14 points in order to get
The League of Nations
______Officially ended the war
The TREATY OF VERSAILLES
treaty of Versailles...
-established nine new nations,
- shifted the boundaries of others,
- carved out five areas from the Ottoman Empire and gave them to Britain and France as mandates.
A temporary colony is administered by a greater power until the area is ready for self-rule.
The treaty(of Versailles):
- barred Germany from maintaining an army
-required to return Alsace-Lorraine to France
- and pay REPARATIONS
Basic flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that would lead to WW11
1) it humiliated Germany by containing a WAR-GUILT CLAUSE forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for the war.
2) Germany was stripped of its possessions in the Pacific making it even more impossible to pay reparations.
3)Russia who fought on the side of the Allies for three years was excluded from the peace talks and wound up losing more territory than Germany.
4)it ignored the claims of the colonized people for self-determination.
When Wilson turned home he faced even more opposition to the Treaty
Some believed it was too harsh. Others thought it was a sell-out to imperialism. A number of ethnic groups were angry about the way the new boundaries were drawn.
The main domestic opposition centered on the issue of the League of Nations itself believing it threatened America's policy of isolationism.
Conservatives were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression
Wilson ignored the concerns of the Republican majority in the Senate when he chose the members of the delegation.
If he had been more willing to compromise it was more likely the Senate would have approved it.
Despite ill health, Wilson set out on a 8,000 mile tour delivering 34 speeches in three weeks to convince
the American people to join the League.
___________suffered a stroke and was paralyzed for two months, unable even to meet with his own Cabinet.
The US never joined the League of Nations.
The US signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.
The US signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.
affected about one-quarter of the population of the country. Cities ran out of coffins. Bodies sometimes had to wait a week to be buried.
In the fall of 1918, the SPANISH FLU EPIDEMIC
killed about 500,000 Americans before it disappeared. Some estimates claim the worldwide death toll for this disease was 30 million. Others put it at 100 million.
The Spanish flu
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