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891 terms

World Civilizations: The Global Experience Glossary

Fourth edition
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Abbasid
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms with Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Abdallahi, Khalifa
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defeated by British General Kitchener in 1598.
Abduh, Muhammad
Disciple of al-Afghani; Muslim thinker at the end of 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology, recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908.
Abelard, Peter
Author of "Yes and No"; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated contradictions within established doctrine.
absolute monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized state churches, imposed state economic policies.
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until the 1900s declared illegal in South Africa.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
Akbar
Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create a new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
al-Afghani
Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
al-Ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Quranic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama.
al-Mahdi
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'is to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession.
al-Rashid, Harun
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession.
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'is.
Ali, Muhammad
Won power struggle in Egypt following fall of Mamluks; established mastery of all Egypt by 1811; introduced effective army based of Western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms; by 1830s was able to challange Ottoman governments in Constantinople; died in 1848.
Allah
Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam.
Allende, Salvador
President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the United States.
Alliance for Progress
Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal intervention programs.
Almohadis
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Saharan Africa.
Almoravids
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdom of the savanna and westward into Spain.
Cabral, Pedro Alvares
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil.
Amaru, Tupac
Mestizo leader of Indian in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition in slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
American Revolution
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America.
amigos del país
Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.
anarchists
Political group that sough the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881.
Anglican church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.
Anschluss
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.
apartheid
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically.
appeasement
Policy of Neville Chamberlain, British prime minister who hoped to preserve peace in the face of German aggression; particularly applied to Munich Conference agreements; failed when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939.
Aquinas, Thomas
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several "Summas"; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
Aquino, Corazon
First president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s; husband was assassinated by thugs in pay of Marcos regime; one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator.
Aragon
Along with Castile, a regional kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Arevalo, Juan José
Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of Socialist reforms including land reform; Nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company.
Argentine Republic
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists.
Asante Empire
Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
asantehene
Title taken by rule of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Ashikaga Takuaji
Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Asian sea trading network
Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; and China based on paper, porcelain, and silks.
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose a form of government under which they live; indicated a sympathy for decolonization.
audiencia
Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.
Aurangzeb
Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military success; died in 1707.
ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.
Babur
Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Baibars
Commander of Mameluk forces at Ain Jalut; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
Bakr, Aby
One of Muhammad's earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community.
bakufu
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Balboa, Vasco de
First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains.
Balfour Declaration
British minister's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine during World War I; issued in 1917.
Balkan nationalism
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
banana republics
Term given to conservative governments supported or created by the United States government in Latin America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
Bangladesh
Founded as an independent nation in 1972; formerly East Pakistan.
banner armies
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and established Qing dynasty.
Batavia
Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java.
Batista, Fulgencio
Dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from government by revolution led by Fidel Castro.
Battle of River Zab
Victory of Abbasids over Umayyds; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital.
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party.
Batu
Ruler of Golden Horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandson's; responsible for invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Belisarius
One of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in North Africa and Italy.
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire.
Benin
City state formed in 14th century under Ewuare the Great (1400-1473); control extended from Niger River to coast near modern Lagos. A large and powerful kingdom of West Africa near the coast (in present-day Nigeria), the city-state came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence; remained an important commercial and political entity until the 19th century.
Berke
Ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mameluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
Berlin Wall
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
bhaktic cults
Groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong and emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Shiva and Vishnu.
Bhutto, Benazir
Twice prime minister of Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s; first ran for office to avenge her father's execution by the military clique then in power.
Bismark, Otto von
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in the 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes.
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
blitzkrieg
German term for lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of troops, tanks, and mechanized carriers; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in the World War II.
bodhisattvas
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetime; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness.
Boer republics
Transvaal and Orange Free State in southern Africa; established to assert independence of Boers from British colonial government in Cape Colony in 1850s; discovery of diamonds and precious metals caused British migration into the Boer areas in 1860s.
Boer War
Fought between 1899 and 1902 over the continued independence of Boer republics; resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization in South Africa.
Boers
Dutch settlers in Cape Colony.
Bolívar, Simon
Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independence state of Gran Colombia.
Bolshevik Revolution
After initial revolution in March 1917 had set up a liberal regime in Russia, the well-organized Bolshevik faction of the communist party, under Lenin, seized power in November (October by the Russian calendar, hence often called the October Revolution); the Bolsheviks capitalized on worker strikes and widespread discontent with Russia's continued participation in World War I; quickly moved to set up a new political and social regime.
Bolsheviks
Literally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution.
Bonaparte, Napolean
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
Boxer Rebellion
Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from China; failed because of intervention of armies of Western powers in China; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials.
boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe.
British East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in India; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
British Raj
Government of the British East Company; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India.
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014.
bushi
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administrated the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Buyids
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under name of sultan; retained Abbasids as a figureheads.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; laster lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
Calcutta
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
caliph
The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
calpulli
Seven clans in Aztec society, later expanded to more than sixty; divided into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Calvin, Jean
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Canton
One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
capitaincies
Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.
caravels
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Cárdenas, Lázaro
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Caribbean
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda, system of colonial management, initiated here.
Carolingians
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
Castile
Along with Aragon, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Castro, Fidel
Cuban revolutionary; overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1958; initiated series of reforms to establish Socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on USSR.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightenment rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Catholic Reformation
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
caudillos
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Cavour, Count Camillo di
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of Northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king.
centralists
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments to impose their concept of rule; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
Chabi
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese.
Chaldiran
Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.
Chams
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed mediation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Chandragupta Maurya
Founder of Maurya dynasty; established first empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization.
Changan
Capital of Tang dynasty; population of two million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.
Charlemagne
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c. 800.
Charles III
Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
Chartist movement
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movements failed.
Chiang Ching-kuo
Son and successor of Chiang Kaishek as rule of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders.
Chiang Kai-shek
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yatsen as the leader of Guomindang or Nationalist Party in China in the mid-1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II.
Chichimecs
American hunting-and-gathering groups; largely responsible for the disruption of early civilizations in Mesoamerica.
chinampas
Bed of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
Chinggis Khan
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world.
Chongzhen
Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen invasion of the Forbidden City at Beijing.
Choson
Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 B.C.E.
Churchill, Winston
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults.
cientificos
Advisors of the government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
civilization
Historians use this term in two ways. First, to describe a society organized with cities, writing and a formal structure. Second, to describe a particular such society, e.g., Chinese civilization that has distinctive, shared institutions and culture. Both uses of the term generate debate.
Clive, Robert
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British Raj in northern India (18th century).
Clovis
Early Frankish King; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
collectivization
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Columbian exchange
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
Columbus, Christopher
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas.
Comintern
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Communist Party of Vietnam
Originally a wing of nationalist movement; became primary nationalist party after decline of VNQDD in 1929; led in late 1920s by Nguyen Ai Quoc, alias Ho Chi Minh.
compradors
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world.
Comte, Auguste
French philosopher (19th century); founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Comunero Revolt
One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
consulado
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
consuls
Two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman republic; elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy.
Cook, Captain James
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779 resulting in opening of islands to the West; convinced Kamehameha to establish unified kingdom in the islands.
Copernicus
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
Copts
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.
core nations
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Cornwallis, Lord Charles
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790s; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption.
Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de
Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
corporatism
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military.
Cortés, Hernán
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
cossacks
Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
Council of the Indies
Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Creole slaves
American-born descendants of "salt water" slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Creoles
White born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares.
Crimean War
Fought between 1854 and 1856; began as Russian attempt to attack Ottoman Empire; opposed by France and Britain as well; resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology; led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander II.
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Cromer, Lord
British adviser in khedival Egypt; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime.
Crusades
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later used from other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
cubist movement
20th-century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects such as geometrical shapes.
Cultural Revolution
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968.
Cyril
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Cyrus the Great
Established massive Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires.
de Gama, Vasco
Portuguese captain who first reached India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean.
Dahomey
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
daimyos
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates.
Damascus
Capital of Umayyad caliphate.
Darwin, Charles
Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Decembrist uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution (1789); stated that the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements.
Deism
Concept of God current during the scientific revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun.
De Klerk, F.W.
White South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, he successfully dismantled the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.
de la Cruz, Sor Juana Inés
Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Demak
Most powerful of the trading states on north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point to dissemination to other ports.
demographic transition
Shift to low birth rate, low infant death rate, stable population; first emerged in Western Europe and U.S. in late 19th century.
demography
The study of population.
Deng Xiaoping
One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1970s, and emerged as China's most influential leader in the early 1980s.
Descartes, René
Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
Deshima
Island port in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
dharma
The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in the next life.
dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus.
dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.
Díaz, Porfirio
One of Juárez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 year; imposed strong central government.
Diem, Ngo Dinh
Political leader of South Vietnam; established as president with United States support in the 1950s; opposed Communist government of North Vietnam; overthrown by military coup supported by United States.
Dien Bien Phu
Most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern position of Vietnam.
Diet
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Din-i-Ilahi
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India but failed.
Dinshawai incident
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptians villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidently shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Disraeli, Benjamin
Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
duma
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
Dutch Studies
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Dutch trading empire
Based on control of fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of limited number of products- particularly spices.
East African trading ports
Urbanized commercial centers sharing common Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language and other cultural traits; included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, and Zanzibar.
eastern bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war - particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany.
Eastern Front
Most mobile of the fronts established during World War I; lacked trench warfare because of length of front extending from the Baltic to southern Russia; after early success, military defeats led to the downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.
edict of Nantes
Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions.
Edo
Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.
effendi
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
Einstein, Albert
Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary movement of electrical particles; after 1990 issued theory of relativity.
El Mina
Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa.
emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
encomendero
Holder of an encomienda; able to use Indians as workers or to tax them.
encomienda
Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquers and settlers in Mesoamerican and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Ethiopia
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.
European-style family
Originated in the 15th century among the peasant and artisans of Western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
fascism
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction.
fazendas
Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
federalists
Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather then centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals.
feminist movements
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella create united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
feudalism
The social organization created during the Middle Ages by exchanging grants of land of fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
five-year plans
Stalin's plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.
flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency.
footbinding
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against holy Roman emperor.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessor; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
Free Officers movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
French Revolution
Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Freud, Sigmund
Viennese physician (19th-20th centuries); developed theories of the working of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
Galileo
Published Copernicus's findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
galleons
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Gálvez, José de
Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government.
Gandhi, Indira
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi); installed as a figurehead prime minister by the Congress Party bosses in 1966; a strong-willed and astute politician, she soon became the central figure in India politics, a position she maintained through the 1970s and passed on to her sons.
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of Communist government in China from the pragmatists; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.
Gempei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
Gestapo
Secret police in Nazi Germany, known for brutal tactics.
Giap, General Vo Nguyen
Chief military commander of the Viet Minh; architect of the Vietnamese victory over the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
glasnost
Policy of political liberation in Soviet Union in the late 1980s.
Glorious Revolution
English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.
Goa
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on western India coast, 16th century ff.; sites for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.
Golden Horde
One of the four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan's death; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia.
Good Neighbor Policy
Established by Franklin D. Roosevelt for dealing with Latin America in 1933; intended to halt direct intervention in Latin American politics.
Gorbachev, Mikhail
USSR ruler after 1985; renewed attacks on Stalinism; urged reduction in nuclear armament; proclaimed policies of glasnost and perestroika.
Gothic
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military success of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate states.
Great Depression
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agriculture prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and Western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.
Greek Revolution
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradual dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Green Revolution
Introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation as a means of producing higher yields in crops such as rice, wheat, and corn; particularly important in the densely populated countries of Asia, 1960s ff.
Gregory VII
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.
guano
Bird dropping utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery.
Guevara, Ernesto "Che"
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.
guilds
Sworn associations of people in the same business or trade in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
guillotine
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
Guomindang
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
Gutenberg, Johannes
Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
Habsburg, Maximilian von
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Bentio Juárez in 1867.
haciendas
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
hadiths
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad.
Hagia Sophia
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian.
hajj
Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship at the Ka'ba.
Hammurabi
The most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law.
Hangzhou
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded one million.
Hanseatic League
An organization of cities in northern Germany for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Harvey, John
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as a pump.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of Western European expansion.
Herzl, Theodor
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state.
Hidalgo, Father Miguel de
Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.
Hideyoshi, Toyotomi
General under Nobunaga; succeeded as leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed a series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Hispaniola
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
Hitler, Adolf
Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews.
Hojo
Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; claimed to rule in name of emperor Kyoto.
Holocaust
Term for Hitler's attempted genocide of all European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.
Holy Alliance
Alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Holy Roman emperors
Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
homelands
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
Homo sapiens
The human species man that emerged as most successful at the end of Paleolithic period.
Hong Kong
British colony on Chinese mainland; major commercial center; agreement reached between Britain and People's Republic of China returned colony to China in 1997.
Hong Xiuquan
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachings of Chinese elite.
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholargenty.
huacas
Sacred spirits and powers that resided or appeared in caves, mountains, rocks, river, and other natural phenomena; typical of Andean societies.
Huancavelica
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Huerta, Victoriano
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata.
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Hulegu
Ruler of Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad.
humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
Humayan
Son and succesor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter.
Hundred Years' War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims and national states.
Hyundai
Example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern Korea; virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast; vertical economic organization with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.
Ibn Batuta
Arabic traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records.
Ibn Khaldun
A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations - strong, weak, dissolute.
iconoclasm
Religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literally "breaking of images"; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored.
icons
Images of religious figures that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the Byzantine Empire; particularly prevalent in Eastern monasticism.
ideographic writing
Pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing.
Ieyasu, Tokugawa
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.
Ifriqiya
The Arabic term for eastern North Africa.
imams
According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from Ali.
import substitution industrialization
Typical of Latin American economies; production of goods during the 20th century that had previously been imported; led to light industrialization.
Inca
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire in Andean civilization c. 1438.
Inca socialism
A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Indian
Misnomer created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans.
Indian National Congress Party
Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.
Indies piece
Term utilized with the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
Industrial Revolution
Series of changes in economy of Western Europe between 1740 and 20th century stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity; commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
intelligentsia
Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class; 19th-century group bent on radical in Russian political and social system; often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West.
investiture
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor IV.
iron curtain
Phrase contained by Winston Churchill to describe the division between free and communist societies taking shape in Europe after 1946.
Isabella of Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Isandhlwana
Location of battle fought in 1879 between British and Zulu armies in South Africa; resulted in defeat of British; one of few victories of African forces over Western Europeans.
Isfahan
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.
Islam
Major world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally "submission"; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
Ismâ'il
Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor.
Iturbide, Augustín de
Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.
Ivan III
Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar - equivalent of emperor.
Ivan IV
Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with Western European commerce and culture.
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
Jesuits
A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America and Asia.
Jiang Qing
Wife of Mao Zeodong; one of Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported Cultural Revolution of 1965; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
jihad
Islamic holy war.
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali
Muslim nationalist in India; originally a member of the Nationalist Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
jinshi
Title granted to those students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.
jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
João VI
Portuguese monarch who established seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of Iberian peninsula; made Brazil seat of empire with capital at Rio de Janerio.
Juárez, Benito
Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
Ju Yuanzhang
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded in Ming dynasty.
junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Jurchens
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south.
Justinian
Eastern Roman emperor between 527 and 565 C.E.; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law.
juula
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry our trade throughout Mali Empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa.
Ka'ba
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Kabir
Muslim Mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam.
Kamasutra
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and instruction on love-making.
Kamehameha I
Fought series of wars backed by British weapons and advisors resulting in unified Hawaiian kingdom by 1810; as king he promoted economic change encouraging Western merchants to establish export trade in Hawaiian goods.
Kangxi
Confucian scholar and Manchu emperor of Qing dynasty from 1661 to 1722; established high degree of Sintification among the Manchus.
Karakorum
Capital of the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan.
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayan, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'i resistance to Umayyad caliphate.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
A treaty coauthored by American and French leaders in 1928; in principle outlawed war forever; ratified subsequently by other nations.
Kenyatta, Jomo
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau.
Kerensky, Alexander
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom.
khagan
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
khanates
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Khartoum
River town that administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
khedives
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah
Religious ruler of Iran following revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate Western influences and establish purely Islamic government.
Khrushchev, Nikita
Stalin's successor as head of USSR; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinists led to downfall.
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Koguryo
Tribal people of northern Korea; established independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Kongo
Kingdom, based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Korean War
Fought from 1950 to 1953; North supported by USSR and later People's Republic of China; South supported by United States and small international United Nations force; ended in stalemate and continued division of Korea.
Kubilai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of the Mongol forces responsible for the conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
kulaks
Agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin and later NEP reforms to increase agriculture production and buy additional land.
kuriltai
Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected.
Kush
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
La Reforma
The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of Santa Anna.
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means; initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau.
Las Casa, Bartolomé de
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
League of Nations
International and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.
Lee Kuan Yew
Ruler of Singapore from independence in 1959 to present; established tightly controlled authoritarian government; ruled through People's Action party to suppress political diversity.
Lepanto
Naval battle between the Spanish and Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims.
Lesotho
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.
letrados
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
liberal
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
liberation theology
Combined Catholic theology and Socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America (20th century).
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Li Dazhao
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
Lin Zexu
Distinguished Chinese official during the early 19th century; charged with stamping out the opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading in areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War.
Li Yuan
Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu.
Locke, John
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses; argued that power of government came from the people, not the divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants.
Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.
Louis XIV
French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy.
Louis XVI
Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
L'Overture, Toussaint
Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony in Angola.
Luddites
Workers in Britain (1810-1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader, Ned Ludd.
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro.
Luther, Martin
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg castle; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic Church; accepted state control of Church.
Luzon
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Macao
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
MacArthur, General Douglas
American commander in Pacific campaign of World War II; headed American occupation government of Japan after the war; later commanded international forces during Korean War.
Machiavelli, Niccolo
Author of "The Prince" (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
Madero, Francisco
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Díaz; initiated revolution against Díaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913.
Magellan, Ferdinand
Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe; died during the voyage; allowed Spain to claim Philippines.
Maghrib
The Arabic word for western North Africa.
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Mahabharata
Indian epic; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral form.
Mahdi, Mahdi Muhammad Achmad
Head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from Prophet; proclaimed both Egyptians and British as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883.
Mahayana Buddhism
Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior.
Mahmud II
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of dynasty; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Malacca
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands.
Mali
Empire centered between the Senegal and Niger rivers; creation of Malinke people; broke away from control of Ghana in 13th century.
Mamluks
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
mandates
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
Mandate of Heaven
The divine source for political legitimacy of Chinese rulers; established by Zhou to justify overthrow of Shang.
Mandela, Nelson
Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party; worked with the ANC leadership and F.W. De Klerk's supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country's history.
manifest destiny
Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.
manorialism
System that described economic and political relations between landlord and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Marquis of Pombal
Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Marshall Plan
Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from the war's devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance.
Martel, Charles
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to Western Europe.
Marx, Karl
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted early socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
mass leisure culture
An aspect of the laster Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Mass Line
Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.
Mataram
Kingdom that controlled interior region of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670s allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java.
mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
May Fourth movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Mecca
City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of chief religions pilgrimage point in Islam.
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra).
Mehmed II
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
mercantilism
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenue; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
Mesopotamia
Literally "between the rivers"; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys.
mestizos
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.
Methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Mexican-American War
Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces; loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions of clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Mexican Revolution
Fought over a period of almost ten years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Mexico City
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
mfecane
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Middle Ages
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
Middle Passage
Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves; although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.
Minas Gerais
Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.
Mindanao
Southern island of Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist a Spanish conquest.
Ming dynasty
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Minh Mang
Second emperor of a united Vietnam; successor of Nguyen Anh; ruled from 1820 to 1841; sponsored emphasis of of Confucianism; persecuted Catholics.
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.
mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Moctezuma II
Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernán Cortés' conquest of Tenochtitlan.
moldboard
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
Mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph.
Monroe Doctrine
American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means to opening Latin American trade.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Morley-Minto reforms of 1909
Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils.
Mu'awiya
Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali.
Mughal Empire
Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Muhammad Shah II
Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm kingdom; attempted to resist Mongol conquest; conquered in 1220.
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century.
Mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders with the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to covert all of population to Shi'ism.
Munich Conference
Meeting concerning Germany's occupation of portions of Czechslovakia in 1938; after receiving Hitler's assurance that he would take no more land, Western leaders agreed to the division of Czechslovakia.
Murad
Head of the coalition of Mameluk households in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mameluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of Muslim core.
Muslim
Follower of Islam.
Muslim Brotherhood
Egyptian nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; committed to fundamentalist movement in Islam; fostered strikes and urban riots against the khedival government.
Muslim League
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislatives seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within India nationalist movement.
Mussolini, Benito
Italian Fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Mvemba, Nzinga
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title of Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.
nabobs
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
Nadir Khan Afshar
Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.
Nasser, Gamal Abdul
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.
Natal
British colony in South Africa; developed after Boer trek north from Cape Colony; major commercial outpost at Durban.
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the the Great Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader, aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles; took power in Germany in 1933.
négritude
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
Nehru, Jawaharlal
One of Gandhi's disciples; governed India after independence (1947); committed to program of social reform and economic development; preserved civil rights and democracy.
neocolonial economy
Economy that results from continued dominance of the first- and second-world nations of the world's economy; ability of the first- and second-world nations to maintain economic colonialism without political colonialism.
Neolithic Age
The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
Nestorians
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in the United States social and economic life.
New Economic Policy
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover.
new feminism
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic rules and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female.
New France
French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
New Spain
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs.
Newton, Isaac
English scientist during the 17th century; author of "Principia"; drew various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.
Nezhualcoyotl
Leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Nguyen Anh
Last surviving member of Nguyen dynasty following Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam; with French support retook southern Vietnam; drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802; proclaimed himself emperor with capital at Hue.
Nkrumah, Kwame
African nationalist during period of decolonization; responsible for creation of first independent, black African state of Ghana in 1957; established power through his own party, the Convention Peoples party.
Nobili, Robert di
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first; strategy later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
Nobunaga
Japanese daimyo; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command; killed in 1582.
Nok
Culture featuring highly developed art style flourishing between 500 B.C.E. and 200 C.E.; located in forests of central Nigeria.
Nonalignment
Policies of countries like India, 1950s-1980s, that sought to avoid taking sides in the cold war.
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement that created an essentially free trade zone among Mexico, Canada, and the United States, in all hope of encouraging economic growth in all three nations; after difficult negotiations, went into effect January 1, 1994.
North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the Western Europe powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
Nur Jahan
Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal empire during later years of Jahangir's reign.
Nurhaci
Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria; entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing.
obeah
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
Obregón, Alvaro
Emerged as leader of the Mexican government in 1915; elected president in 1920.
Ogedei
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father's death.
Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Opium War
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade.
Orabi, Ahmad
Student of Muhammad Abduh; led revolt in 1882 against Turkish influence in Egyptian army; forced khedive to call on British army for support.
Ormuz
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at southern end of Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.
Orozco, José Clemente
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Ottoman Empire
Turkic empire established in Asia minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of the Byzantine Empire on 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of the Mongols.
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called the "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution.
Ottomans
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Pachacuti
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
Pacific Rim
Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates; expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.
Palmares
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Panama Canal
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provide short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.
parliaments
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
Parliamentary monarchy
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significantly legislative powers in parliaments.
partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russian, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe.
Pasteur, Louis
Discoverer of germs; discovery led to more conscientious sanitary regulation by the 1880s.
Paulistas
Backwoodsmen from São Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century.
Pearl Harbor
American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused entry of United States into World War II.
Pedro I, Dom
Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.
peninsulares
People living in New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by USSR; long headed by Kim Il-Sung; attacked south in 1950 and initiated Korean War; retained independence as a Communist state after the war.
People's Liberation Army
Chinese Communist army; administered much of country under People's Republic of China.
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
perestroika
Policy of Mikhail Gorbachev calling for economic restructuring in the USSR in the last 1980s; more leeway for private ownership and decentralized control in industry and agriculture.
period of the Six Dynasties
Era from 220 to 589 C.E.; featured endless wars fought by the patchwork of regional kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han in China.
Perón, Juan de
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946; forced into exile in 1955; returned and won presidency in 1973.
Perry, Matthew
American commodore who visited Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854.
Persian Gulf War
1991 war led by United States and various European and Middle Eastern allies, against Iraqi occupation of Kuweit. The war led to Iraqi withdrawal and a long confrontation with Iraq about armaments and political regime.
Peter I
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of Western European models.
Petarch, Francesco
One of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; and Italian author and humanist.
Pharaoh
Title of kings of ancient Egypt.
Pinsker, Leon
European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
Pizzarro, Francisco
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish.
Plassey
Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sirãj-ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India.
pochteca
Special merchant class in Aztec society.
polis
City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Politburo
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; feel from power in 1938.
population revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
positivism
French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to problems of society; adopted by many Latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence.
Potosí
Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.
Potsdam Conference
Meeting among leader of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union just before the end of World War II in 1945; Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in Eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious Allies.
Achmad, Muhammad
Head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from prophet Muhammmad; proclaimed both Egyptian and British as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883; also known as the Mahdi (p. 628)
age of revolution
Period of political upheaval beginning roughy with the American Revlution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848 (p. 536)
Alexander the Great
Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian Cultures (p. 51)
Alexandria, Egypt
One of many cities of that name foundd by Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies (p. 72)
Almoravids
[al muh rav udz] A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africacontrolled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savannah and westward into Spain (p. 174)
animism
A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions (p. 110)
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world (p. 79)
Armenian genocide
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian poppulation in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East (p. 680)
Aryans
Indo-European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harrapan civilization; militarized society (p. 52)
Ashikaga Shogunate
Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imprial authority (p. 294)
Ashoka
Grandson of Chandrangupta Maurya; completed conquests of the Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire (p. 54)
Ataturk
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of the Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models (p. 691)
Augustine (Saint)
Influential church father and theologian (354 - 430 C.E.); born in Africa and ultimately Bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in th elong-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination (p.103)
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome (p. 73)
Aurangzeb
Son and succesorof Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhauted empire despite military successes died in 1707 (p. 493)
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeatof Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome (p. 73)
Axum
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Meroe in the first century C.E.; received strong influenc from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity (p. 93)
Babylonian Empire
United all of Mesopotamia c. 1800 B.CE.; collapsed due to foreign invasion c. 1600 B.C.E. (p. 19)
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon (p. 138)
Battle of Britain
The 1940 Nazi air offensive inlcuding saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by British innovative air tactics and radar tracking of Geran assault aircraft (p. 758)
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler's last-ditch effort to repel the invading Allied armies in the winter of 1944-5 (p. 761)
Battle of the Coral Sea
World War II Pacific battle; United States and Japanese forces fought to a standoff (p. 762)
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia (p. 323)
Biko, Steve
An organizer of Black Consciousness movement in South Africa, in opposition to aparthied; murdered while in police custody (p. 858)
Bronze Age
From about 4000 B.C.E. when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle east, to about 1500 B.C.E when iron first began to replace it )p. 13)
Buddha
Creator of major Indian and Asian religion; born in 6th Century B.C.E. as son of a local ruler amonth Aryan tribes located near the Himalayas; became an ascetic; found enlightenment under Bo Tree; taught that enlightenment could only be achieved by abandoning desires for all earthly things (p. 59)
Cabralk, Pedro Alvares
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil (p. 435)
Caesar, Julius
Roman general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in 44 B.C.E. by conservative senators
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people (p. 468)
Carthange
Originally a Phoenician colony in northern Africa; became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean (p. 73)
Catal Huyuk
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; was larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification (p. 14)
Cicero
Conservative Roman senator; stoic philospher; one of the great orators of his day; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar (p. 76)
city-state
A form of political organization of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-basd king (p. 19)
Clemenceau, Georges
French prime minister in last years of World War I and during Versailles Conference of 1919; pushed for heavy reparation from Germans (p. 682)
Confucius
Also known as kang Fuzi; major Chinese philosopher; born in 6th Century B.C.E.; author of Analects; philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men to be found among the shi (p. 37)
conservatives
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th Century; opposed revolutionary goals; advanced restoration of monarchy and defense of Church (p. 451)
Constantine
Roman emperor from 312 to 337 C.E.; estaboished second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually (p. 73)
Convention Peoples party (CPP)
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast (p. 769)
Corinthian
Along with Doric and Ionian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture, the most ornate of the three styles (p. 82)
cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets (p. 150
curacas
Ayllu chiefs with privileges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean societies (p. 254)
Daoism
Philosophy associated with Laozi; stressed need for alignment with Dao or comsic force (p. 35)
Devi
Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual (p. 99)
Diocletian
Roman emperor from 284 to 305 C.E.; restored later empire by improved admiistration and tax collection (p. 73)
direct democracy
Literally rule of the peoplel as interpreted in Athens, all decisions emanated from popular assembly without intermediation of elected representatives (p. 75)
Doric
Along with Ionian and Corinthain, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three (p. 82)
Dreyfus, Alfred
French Jew falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans; his mistreatment and exile to Devil's Island provided flashpoint fo ryears of bitter debate between the left and right in France (p. 692)
DuBois, W. E. B.
African American political leader; had amajor impact on emrging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s (p. 695)
Empress Wu
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created (p. 269)
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18the Century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to the study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior (p. 3950
Ferdinand, Archduke
Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo started World War I (p. 674)
five pillars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zaka and hajj (p. 130)
Gallipoli
Peninsula south of Istanbul; site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during World War 1 (p. 680)
Gandhi, Mohandas
Led sustained all-India campaign for independence from British Empire after World War I; stressed nonviolent but aggressive mass protest (p. 688)
Garvey, Marcus
African American political leader; had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s (p. 695)
globalization
The increasing interconnectedness of all parts of the world, particularly in communication and commerce but also in culture and politics (p. 908)
Grand Canal
Built in 7th Century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link oriental centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long (p. 275)
Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communities; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960 (p. 879)
Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi (p. 38)
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zanbezi and Limpopo rivers; developed after 9th Century; featured royal courts built of stone; created centralizd state by 15th Century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa (p. 188)
gurus
Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the guptas (p. 58)
Haganah
Zionist military force engaged in violent resistance to British presence in Palestine in he 1940s (p. 774)
Han dynasty
Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin in 202 B.C.E.; ruled for next 400 years (p. 38)
Hannibal
Great Carthaginiina general during second Punic war; successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally defeated at the Battle of Zama (p. 73)
Harappa
Along with Mohenjo-daro. major urban complex of the Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern (p. 21)
Harappan civilization
First visilization of Indian subcontinent; emerged in Indus river valley c. 2500 B.C.E. (p. 26)
Hausa
Poples of northern Nigeria; fprmed states following the demise of Songhay Empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions (p. 180)
Hellenistic period
That culture associated with the spread of Grek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as a combination of Greek culture with eastern forms (p. 72)
Himalayas
Mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent; sie of Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics (p. 52)
Ho Chi Minh
Also known as Nguyen Ai Quoc; led Vietnamese Communist party as struggle for liberation from French and U.S. dominance and to unify North and South Vietnam (p. 886)
Huanghe
Also known as Yellow River; site of development of sedentary agriculture in China (p. 210
hunting and gathering
Means of obtaining subsistence by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band organization (p. 110
Hussein
Sherif of Mecca; used British promise of independence to convence Arans to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep promise (p. 691)
Iliad
Greek epic poem attributd to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek mythos (p. 81)
Indra
Chief deity of Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-driking warrior (p. 53)
Indus River valley
River sources in Himalayas to mouth in Arabian Sea; location of Harappan civilization (p. 21)
Ionic
Along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct Hellenistic style of architecture; more ornate than Dorci but less so than Corinthian (p. 82)
Jesus of Nazareth
Prophet and teache among the Jews; belieedby Christians to be the Messsiah; executed c. 30 C.E. (p. 106)
Jin
Also known as Qin; kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty (p. 274)
Kautilya
Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare (p. 56)
Kenya African Unin (KAU)
Leading nationalist party in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s (p. 771)
Khadijah
First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who worked for her as a trader (p. 127)
Khitans
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th Century (p. 272)
Kushans
Dynasty that succeeded Mauryas in northwestern India; sponsors of Buddhism; empire did not extend to ganges river valley (p. 550
Liao dynasty
Founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song Dynasty in China (p. 272)
Lin Baio
Chinese commander under Mao; trained at Chinag Kai-Shek's Whampoa Academy in the 1920s (p. 877)
Liu Shaoqui
Chinese Communist pragmatist; with Dneg Xiaoping, came to power after Mao; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local evel (p. 880)
Lloyd George,David
Prime minister of Great Britain who headed a coalition govrnment through much of World War I and the turbulent years that followed (p. 682)
loess
Fine grained soil deposited in the Ordos bend by winds frm central Asia; created fertile soil for sedentary agricultural communities (p. 26)
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro (p. 460)
Macedon
Kingdom located in northern Greece; originally loosely organized under kings, became centralized undr Philip II; served as basis for unification of Greece and later Macedonian Empire (p. 71)
Mauryas
Dynasty established in Indian subcontinent in 4th Century B.C.E following invasion by Alexander the Geat (p. 54)
Maya
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan; extdned over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion (p. 96)
Midway Island
World War II Pacific battle; decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force (p. 7620
Minamoto
Defeated rival Taira family in Gempei wars and established mililtary government (bakufu) in 12th-Century Japan (p. 293)
Mira Bai
Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of Bhaktic cults to wmen (p. 163)
Mohenjo Daro
Along with Harappa,major urban complex of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern (p. 21)
monotheims
The exclusive worship f a single god; introduced by the Jews into western civilization (p. 27)
Mubarak, Hosni
President of Egypt since 1981, succeeding Anwar Sedat and continuing his policies of cooperation with the West (p. 854)
multinational corporations
Powerful companies, mainly from the West or Pacific Rim, with production as well as distributin operations in man different countris. Multinationals surged in the decades after World War II (p. 910)
Mumtaz Mahal
Wife of Shah Jahan; ook an active political role in the Mughal court; entombed in teh Taj Mahal (p. 4950
Nicholas II
Tsar of Russia 1894-1971; forcefully suppressed political opposition and resisted constitutional government; deposed by revolution in 1971 (p. 677)
nirvana
The Buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of tranquility (p. 677)
nomads
Cattle and sheep-herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies, commonly referred to as "barbarian" by civilized societies (p. 15)
Odyssey
Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek mythos (p. 81)
Olmec culture
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems (p. 96)
Olympic games
One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations (p. 71)
Paekche
Independent Korean-kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th Century (p.299)
Paleolithic Age
The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 B.C.E.; typefied by the use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence (p. 7)
pan-African
Organization that brought together individuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War 1 (p. 695)
party cadres
Basis of China's communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels (p. 877)
Paul
One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from the insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church (p. 107)
Peloponnesian Wars
Wars from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece (p. 71)
Pericles
Athenian political leader during 5th Century B.C.E.; guided development of Athenian Empire; died during early stages of Peloponnesian War (p. 71)
Philip II
Ruled Macdon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority (p. 71)
Polynesia
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, Nw Zealand, and Easter Island (p. 97)
pope
Bishop of Rome; head of the Christian Church in western Europe (p. 107)
pragmatists
Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed Great Leap Forward. (p. 1036)
Presidencies
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay. (p. 733)
Prester John
Name given to a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom had supposedly been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler. (p. 323)
PRI
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico. (p. 816)
primary products
Food or industrial crops for which there is a high demand in industrialized economies; prices of such products tend to fluctuate widely; typically the primary exports of Third World economies. (p. 846)
Princely States
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers' courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire. (p. 568)
proletariat
Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries. (p. 387)
Protestantism
General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief. (p. 387)
proto-industrialization
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution. (p. 537)
Pugachev rebellion
During 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelyan Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter. (p. 409)
Punic Wars
Fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean; won by Rome after three separate conflicts. (p. 72)
pure land Buddhism
Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society. (p. 268)
Puyi
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912. (p. 637)
pyramids
Monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs. (p. 20)
Qin dynasty
[chin] Established in 221 b.c.e. at the end of the Warring States period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; fell in 207 b.c.e. (p. 37)
Quetzalcoatl
[ket säl kO ät l] Toltec deity; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god. (p. 240)
quipu
System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records. (p. 256)
Quit India Movement
Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India (p. 767)
Qur'an
[koo rän, -ran] Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam. (p. 121)
Quraysh
[koor Ish] Tribe of bedouins that controlled Mecca. (p. 125)
Qutb-ud-din Aibak
[kUt bUd dEEn I bäk] Lieutenant of Muhammad of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India. (p. 162)
radical
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes. (p. 541)
Rajput
[räj pUt] Regional princes in India following collapse of empire; emphasized military control of their regions. (p. 99)
Ramadan
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset. (p. 130)
Ramayana
One of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife, Sita. (p. 52)
Recopilación
[rAY kO pEEl ä sEE On] Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies. (p. 434)
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background. (p. 715)
Red Guard
Student brigades utilized by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the Cultural Revolution to discredit Mao's political enemies. (p. 882)
Red Heads
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear. (p. 483)
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain. (p. 541)
reincarnation
The successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives. (p. 58)
religious revivalism
An approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life; has been increasingly associated in the late 20th century with revivalist movements in a number of world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism. (p. 846)
Renaissance
Cultural and political movement in western Europe; began in Italy c. 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; featured a literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages. (p. 340)
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s. (p. 886)
revisionism
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions. (p. 549)
Rhodes, Cecil
British entrepreneur in South Africa around 1900; manipulated political situation in South Africa to gain entry to resources of Boer republics; encouraged Boer War as means of destroying Boer independence. (p. 583)
Ricci, Matteo
[rEEt chEE] Along with Adam Schall, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; corrected calendars, forged cannons, fixed clocks; won few converts to Christianity. (p. 516)
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam. (p. 131)
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763. (p. 437)
Rivera, Diego
[ri vär uh] Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology. (p. 712)
Roman Republic
The balanced constitution of Rome from c. 510 to 47 B.C.E.; featured an aristocratic Senate, a panel of magistrates, and several popular assemblies. (p. 72)
The Romance of the West Chamber
Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period; indicative of the continued literary vitality of China during Mongol rule. (p. 329)
Romanov, Alexis
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church. (p. 406)
Romanov dynasty
Dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917. (p. 405)
romanticism
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection. (p. 552)
Rosas, Juan Manuel de
Strongman leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy. (p. 598)
Rowlatt Act
Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919. (p. 688)
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. (p. 453)
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 c.e. (p. 205)
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments. (p. 206)
Russo-Japanese War
War between Japan and Russia over territory in Manchuria beginning in 1905; Japan defeated the Russians, largely because of its naval power; Japan annexed Korea in 1910 as a result of military dominance. (p. 651)
Sadat, Anwar
Successor to Gamal Abdul Nasser as ruler of Egypt; acted to dismantle costly state programs; accepted peace treaty with Israel in 1973; opened Egypt to investment by Western nations. (p. 853)
Safavid dynasty
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722. (p. 473)
Sahara
Desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa. (p. 95)
sahel
The extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; a point of exchange between the forests to the south and North Africa. (p. 176)
Sail al-Din
[sä EEl al din, dEEn] Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty. (p. 482)
Saladin
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam. (p. 151)
salt water slaves
Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black. (p. 467)
samurai
Mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor. (p. 292)
San Martin, José de
Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well. (p. 592)
Sandinista party
Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s. (p. 824)
Sandino, Augusto
Led a guerrilla resistance movement against U.S. occupation forces in Nicaragua; assassinated by Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934; became national hero and symbol of resistance to U.S. influence in Central America. (p. 825)
Sanskrit
The sacred and classical Indian language. (p. 52)
Santa Anna, General Antonio López de
Seized power in Mexico after collapse of empire of Mexico in 1824; after brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo; defeated by Texans in war for independence in 1836; defeated by United States in Mexican-American War in 1848; unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854. (p. 598)
Santa Cruz, Andrés
Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839. (p. 595)
Sarajevo
Administrative center of teh Bosnian province of the Austrian Empire; assassination here of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I. (p. 674)
Sarmiento, Domingo F.
Liberal politician and president of Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade, launched internal reforms in education and transportation. (p. 604)
satyagraha
[sut yuh gruhuh, suht yä gruh-] Literally, "truth-force"; strategy of nonviolent protest developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers in India; later deployed throughout the colonized world and in the United States. (p. 688)
Schall, Adam
Along with Matteo Ricci, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity. (p. 516)
scholar-gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China. (p. 62)
scholasticism
Dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems. (p. 225)
school of National Learning
New ideology that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confucianism; typical of Japan in 18th century. (p. 521)
scientific revolution
Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages. (p.388)
Secret Army Organization (OAS)
Organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerrilla war following independence during the 1960s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence. (p. 772)
self-determination
Right of people in a region to determine whether to be independent or not. (p. 682)
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century. (p. 151)
Selim III
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807. (p. 621)
Senate
Assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constitution. (p. 76)
sepoys
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India. (p. 565)
sepukku
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor. (p. 293)
serfs
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages. (p. 215)
settlement colonies
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants. (p. 576)
Seven Years' War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America. (p. 372)
Shah-Nama
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests. (p. 154)
Shang
First Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bend. (p. 24)
Sharia
[shä rEE ä] Islamic law; defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance. (p. 181)
shaykhs
[shAYks] Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children. (p. 123)
Shi Huangdi
[shOE hwäng dEE] Founder of the brief Qin dynasty in 221 b.c.e. (p. 37)
Shi'a
Also known as Shi'ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali. (p. 133)
Shinto
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits. (p. 96)
Shiva
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change. (p. 58)
shoguns
Military leaders of the bakufu. (p. 294)
Shrivijaya
[srEE wi jô yuh] Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion. (p. 165)
Sikhs
Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge differences between Hindu and Muslim, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feeling. (p. 496)
Silk Roads
The most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the European, Indian, and Chinese civilizations; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations. (pp. 49, 94)
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668. (p. 299)
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam. (p. 299)
Sino-Japanese War
War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaotung peninsula. (p. 659)
Sisulu, Walter
Black African leader who, along with Nelson Mandela, opposed aprthied system in South Africa. (p. 858)
slash-and-burn agriculture
A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors cleared by fire are then planted. (p. 13)
Smith, Adam
Established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations, 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces. (p. 395)
social question
Issues relating to repressed classes in Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870. (p. 548)
socialism
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man. (p. 548)
socialism in one country
Joseph Stalin's concept of Russian communism based solely on the Soviet Union rather than the Leninist concept of international revolution; by cutting off the Soviet Union from other economies, the USSR avoided worst consequences of the Great Depression. (p. 730)
Socialist realism
Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of Western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism. (p. 744)
sociedad de castas
American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Indians at bottom, mixed races in middle. (p. 438)
Socrates
Athenian philosopher of later 5th century b.c.e.; tutor of Plato; urged rational reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young. (p. 80)
Solidarity
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland. (p. 800)
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr
[sOlzhuh nEEt sin, sol-] Russian author critical of the Soviet regime; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps, The Gulag Archipelago. (p. 803)
Songhay
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali (1464-1492). (p. 180)
Sophocles
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex. (p. 81)
Southern Song
Rump state of Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song. (p. 275)
Spanish-American War
War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. (p. 613)
Spanish Civil War
War pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists; the Soviet Union supported the republicans; led to victory of the royalist forces. (p. 736)
split inheritance
Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy. (p. 252)
Stalin, Joseph
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953. (p. 716)
stateless societies
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states. (p. 173)
Stoics
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery. (p. 79)
Stolypin reforms
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry. (p. 651)
stupas
Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone or hair and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms. (p. 61)
Sudanic states
Kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power in the region; based at Takrur on the Senegal River to the west and Gao on the Niger River to the east; included Mali and Songhay. (p. 176)
Suez Canal
Built across Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by European investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment. (p. 626)
Sufis
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Asia. (p. 156)
Sui
Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern China; united all of northern China and reconquered southern China. (p. 98)
Sumerians
People who migrated into Mesopotamia c. 4000 b.c.e.; created first civilization within region; organized area into city-states. (p. 17)
Sun Yat-sen
Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died in 1925. (p. 636)
Sundiata
The "Lion Prince"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260. (p. 177)
Sunnis
Political and theological division within Islam; followers of the Umayyads. (p. 133)
Supreme Soviet
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions. (p. 715)
Suriname
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerrilla resistance. (p. 469)
Swazi
New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane. (p. 464)
syndicalism
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics. (p. 737)
Taika reforms
[tI kä] Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army. (p. 288)
Taiping rebellion
Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry. (p. 634)
Taira
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th Centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei. (p. 293)
Taiwan
Island off Chinese mainland; became refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek as Republic of China in 1948; successfully retained independence with aid of United States; rapidly industrialized after 1950s. (p. 864)
Taj Mahal
Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal. (p. 494)
tambos
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages. (p. 254)
Tang
Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 c.e.; more stable than previous dynasty. (p. 98)
Tangut
Rulers of Xi-Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226. (p. 274)
Tanzimat reforms
Series of reforms in Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Wesern-style university, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of a new constitution in 1876. (p. 622)
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact. (p. 208)
Tayson Rebellion
Peasant revolution in southern Victnam during the late 1770s; succeeded in toppling the Nguyen dynasty; subsequently unseated the Trinh dynasty of northern Vietnam. (p. 884)
technocrat
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following World War II. (p. 785)
Tehran Conference
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France. (p. 765)
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center locates at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas. (p. 253)
Tenochtitlan
[tAY nôch tEE tlän] Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica. (pp. 242)
Teotihuacan
[tAY O tEE wä kän] Site of Classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population of as much as 200,000. (p. 96)
terakoya
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan to teach reading, writing and the rudiments of Confucianism; resulted in high literacy rate, approaching 40 percent, of Japanese males. (p. 652)
The Tale of Genji
Written by lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society. (p. 290)
third Rome
Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453. (p. 404)
third world
Nations outside the capitalist industrial nations of the first world and the industrialized Communist nations of the second world; generally less economically powerful, but with varied economies. (p. 813)
Thirty Years' War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia. (p. 385)
three-field system
System of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow. (p. 215)
Tilak, B. G.
Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first Populist leader in India. (p. 687)
Timbuktu
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River; population of 50,000; contained a library and university. (p. 179)
Time of Troubles
Followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613. (p. 405)
Timur-i Lang
Leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405. (p. 331)
Tlaloc
[tlä lOk] Major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain. (p. 242)
Tokugawa Shogunate
Founded in 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought unity to Japan. (p. 519)
Toltec culture
Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; Nahuatlspeaking people; established political control over large territory after 1000 c.e.; declined after 1200 c.e. (p. 240)
Topiltzin
Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula. (p. 240)
totalitarian state
A new kind of government in the 20th century that exercised massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union. (p. 732)
Tragic Week
Occurred in Argentina in 1919; government response to general strike of labor forces led to brutal repression under guise of nationalism. (p. 737)
trans-Siberian railroad
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role. (p. 648)
transformismo
Political system in late 19th century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo. (p. 547)
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America. (p. 601)
Treaty of Paris
Arranged in 1763 following Seven Years' War; granted New France to England in exchange for return of French sugar island in Caribbean. (p. 372)
Treaty of Tordesillas
[torduh sEEl yäs, -sEE-] Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain. (p. 434)
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic. (p. 385)
triangular trade
Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe. (p. 454)
Trinh
Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi; rivals of Nguyen family in south. (pp. 309, 884)
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I. (p. 558)
Triple Entente
Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I. (p. 558)
Truman, Harry
American president from 1945 to 1952; less eager for smooth relations with the Soviet Union than Franklin Roosevelt; authorized use of atomic bomb during World War II; architect of American diplomacy that initiated the cold war. (p. 781)
Trung sisters
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society. (p. 306)
tumens
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10. (p. 318)
Tutu, Osei
[tU tU] Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms. (p. 457)
Twantinsuyu
[twän tin sUyU] Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Colombia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina. (p. 251)
ulama
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking. (p. 650)
Ulyanov, Vladimir Ilyic
[Ul yä nuhf] Better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells; leader of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. (p. 816)
Umayyad
[U mI yad] Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam. (p. 125)
umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity. (p. 125)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991. (p. 715)
United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954. (p. 819)
United Nations
International organization formed in the aftermath of World War II; included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes. (p. 764)
untouchables
Lowest caste in Indian society; performed tasks that were considered polluting-street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning. (p. 53)
Upanishads
[U pan i shad, U pä ni shäd] Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority. (p. 52)
Urban II
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims. (p. 221)
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan. (p. 132)
Valdivia, Pedro de
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541. (p. 427)
Vargas, Getúlio
[vär guhs] Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954. (p. 738)
varnas
Clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes-Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was group of socially untouchable Dasas. (p. 53)
vassals
Members of the military elite in the Middle Ages who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty. (p. 219)
Vedas
Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century b.c.e. (p. 52)
viceroyalties
Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the King. (p. 434)
Vichy
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans. (p. 757)
Viet Cong
Name given by Diem regime to Communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958. (p. 887)
Viet Minh
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during World War II; employed guerrilla tactics similar to the Maoists in China. (p. 886)
Vietnamese Nationalist party
Also known as the Vietnamese Quoc Dan Dong or VNQDD; active in 1920s as revolutionary force committed to violent overthrow of French colonialism. (p. 885)
Vikings
Seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark and Norway that disrupted coastal areas of western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries. (p. 214)
Villa, Pancho
[vEE uh] Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta. (p. 711)
Vishnu
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped. (p. 58)
Vivaldis
Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic. (p. 343)
vizier
[vi zEEr, viz yuhr] Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan. (p. 477)
Vladimir I
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity. (p. 205)
vodun
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti. (p. 468)
Wafd party
[wäft] Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles Treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghl[[auumlaut]]l; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922. (p. 693)
Wang Anshi
Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society. (p. 274)
War of Spanish Succession
Resulted from Bourbon family's succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French. (p. 441)
Warsaw Pact
Alliance organized by the Soviet Union with its eastern European satellites to balance formation of NATO by Western powers in 1949
wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire. (p. 138)
Wendi
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty. (p. 264)
welfare state
New activism of the West European state in economic policy and welfare issues after World War II; introduced programs to reduce the impact of economic inequality; typically included medical programs and economic planning. (p. 784)
Western Front
Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict. (p. 671)
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek. (p. 722)
White Dominions
Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century. (p. 576)
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule. (p. 329)
white racial supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer. (p. 580)
Wilberforce, William
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament; led abolition of English slave trade in 1807. (p. 470)
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy. (p. 220)
witchcraft persecution
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas. (p. 388)
Witte, Sergei (Count)
[vit uh] Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia. (p. 648)
Wollstonecraft, Mary
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women. (p. 397)
World Zionist Organization
Founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state. (p. 692)
Wuzong
Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology. (p. 270)
Xavier, Francis
[zAY vEE uhr, zav EE-, zAY vyuhr] Spanish Jesuit missionary; worked in India in 1540s among the outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites. (p. 507)
Xi Xia
Kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th Century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry. (p. 274)
Xuanzong
[shU än jonh, shwantsong] Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion. (p. 271)
Yalta Conference
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war. (p. 765)
yanas
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or the Inca nobility. (p. 255)
Yang Guifei
[yäng gwä fä] Young woman belonging to harem of Tang prince; raised to status of royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt. (p. 271)
Yangdi
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618. (p. 265)
Yaroslav
Last of great Kievan monarchs; issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium. (p. 206)
Yellow River
Also known as the Huanghe; site of development of sedentary agriculture in China. (p. 21)
Yellow Turbans
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 c.e. in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic. (p. 98)
Yeltsin, Boris
Began to move up the ladder of the Communist party in Soviet Union in 1968, becoming First Secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee in 1985; initially a loyal backer of Gorbachev but increasingly criticized him for unduly slow pace of reform; stood up to a coup attempt in 1991 but then managed to displace Gorbachev; in his position as president of the Russian Republic, sponsored several subsequent constitutional provisions and weathered battles with opponents in Parliament. (p. 899)
Yi
Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence. (p. 302)
Yoruba
City-states developed in northern Nigeria c. 1200 c.e.; Ile-Ife featured artistic style possibly related to earlier Nok culture; agricultural societies supported by peasantry and dominated by ruling family and aristocracy. (p. 186)
Yuan Shikai
[yU än shEE kI, yYän] Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916. (p. 717)
zaibatsu
[zI bät sU] Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization. (p. 657)
zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims. (p. 129)
Zapata, Emilano
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform. (p. 711)
Zapatistas
Guerilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata; originated in 1994 in Mexico's southern state of Chiapas; government responded with a combination of repression and negociation. (p. 816)
zemstvoes
[zemst vO, pl. -stvos] Local political councils created as part of reforms of Tsar Alexander II (1860s); gave some Russians, particularly middle-class professionals, some experience in government; councils had no impact on national policy. (p. 646)
Zen Buddhism
Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed mediation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty. (p. 286)
Zenj (Zanj)
Arabic term for the East African coast. (pp. 183)
Zhao Kuangyin
[jaoo kwän yin] Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent. (p. 272)
Zhenge
Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433; only Chinese attempt to create worldwide trade empire. (p. 337)
Zhou
Originally a vassal family of Shang China; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew Shang and established second historical Chinese dynasty. (p. 36)
Zhou Enlai
[jO en lI] After Mao Zedong, the most important leader of the Communist party in China from the 1930s until his death in 1976; premier of China from 1954; notable as perhaps the most cosmopolitan and moderate of the inner circle of Communist leaders. (p. 880)
Zhu Xi
[tsU shEE, ju shEE] Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action. (p. 273)
ziggurats
Massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes. (p. 18)
Zionism
Movement originating in Eastern Europe during the 1860s and 1870s that argued that the Jews must return to a Middle Eastern Holy Land; eventually identified with the settlement of Palestine. (p. 692)
Zoroastriansim
[zôr O as trEE uh niz uhm, zOr-] Animist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in "House of Song"; chief religion of Persian Empire. (p. 70)