American Republic CH 8
Terms in this set (25)
Give three reasons Washington had for being solemn on his inauguration day.
1. The nation didn't have money.
2. Our army and navy were weak.
3. The Constitution did not give many details about how to run the new government.
4. other nations were unfriendly
What were the four departments of government that Washington established? Who was head of each?
1. Dept of State--Thomas Jefferson
2. Treasury Dept.--Alexander Hamilton
3. War Dept.--Henry Knox
4. Justice Dept--Edmund Randolph
Describe the two ways in which Hamilton and Jefferson viewed America's future.
Hamilton--strong central government, urban and industrial nation
Jefferson--more power at state level, rural and agricultural nation
List the four parts of Hamilton's financial program.
1. Impose taxes to raise $
2. Repay money borrowed during the Revolution War (war debt)
3. Federal government to pay off debts of the states
4. Establish a national bank
What brought about the first political parties in the United States?
Disagreement over Hamilton financial plan
What precedent did Washington set with his handling of the Whiskey Rebellion? Why was the precedent important?
He showed that the federal government would enforce laws; important to show others so they would fear breaking national laws
Where did Anthony Wayne's forces defeat a band of Indians? Give two reasons why the Indians had attacked the white settlers.
Fallen Timbers in Ohio; 1. Americans had broken treaties with them and taken their lands 2. British urged them to attack 3. they had been removed from their homes
What official position did the United States take toward European conflict in 1793?
to be neutral in foreign wars (Neutrality Proclamation)
How did Hamilton and Jefferson differ on the French Revolution? Who do you think was right, and why?
Hamilton: stay out of the conflict
Jefferson: support the revolution
What Frenchman tried to alienate Washington from the American people by recruiting Americans to fight?
Edmond Charles Genet
For what two reasons did Britain seize American ships and impress American sailors?
1. Americans were trading with Britain's enemy, France, and we disagreed about the rights neutral countries might have at sea.
2. British sailors were jumping ship to work on American ships for more money and better treatment.
What two issues were settled by the Pinckney Treaty, and with what country was that treaty made?
Gave US right of deposit at New Orleans and made the 31st parallel of latitude the southern boundary of the US.;Spain
How did Washington's example contribute to liberty and the peaceful transfer of power in America?
He voluntarily gave up power after 2 terms, giving others the opportunity to serve their country
When he left office, in what three areas did Washington advise the use of caution?
1. dividing into factions (political parties)
2. making alliances with foreign nations
Name the Federalist and the Democratic Republican candidates for president in the election of 1796.
Federalist: Thomas Pinckney and John Adams
Democratic Republican: Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson
What was unusual about the outcome of the election of 1796?
Adams opponent, Thomas Jefferson became the Vice-President.
How did the French react to Jay's treaty with England?
Their navy raided American ships, they seized and threatened American sailors, and they refused to accept our minister to France, Charles Pinckney.
What incident led America to prepare for the war against France? Name three steps Americans took to defend themselves.
the XYZ affair
1. built a navy
2. tripled size of army
3. Washington was recalled as commander-in-chief
What agreement averted war between America and France? What French leader sought this peace settlement?
Convention of 1800; Napolean Bonaparte
What did the Sedition Act say? Why did the Democratic-Republicans feel this law was unfair?
Anyone who said anything false or malicious about the government or its officials could be fined $2000 and imprisoned up to 2 years.; They thought the law violated their First Amendment rights. (free speech and free press)
Under the nullification theory, what power would the states have?
The power to declare void any federal law within it's boundaries.
Whom did Adams nominate to be the chief justice of the Supreme Court?
Who were the "midnight judges"?
They were 58 judges appointed by Adams on the night before he left office.
What precedent did Washington set when the House tried to block the carrying out of the Jay Treaty? Why was this precedent important?
He stated that any treaty ratified by the Senate was law and must be carried out. This precedent kept the House from interfering in the future treaty negotiations
Why do you think it was important tha the election of 1796 be a peaceful one? (adams won that election)
This first election involving political parties would set a precedent. If it had been chaotic the government would've been unstable.