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Forensics: Study Guide
Terms in this set (34)
This type refers to physical evidence that is found in small but measurable amounts, such as strands of hair, fibers, or skin cells:
What type of evidence identifies the substance as coming from one source, only?
What is the number 1 & 2 priority for officers and first responders?
First aid and safety
1.) Safety for all
2.) First aid
(then secure scene)
Name the different types of search patterns?
- Grid (allows area to be checked twice)
- Spiral (common in explosions)
- Strip/Line (only have a couple of people)
Which type of search is often used after an explosion?
What is the principle that says: Whenever two objects come together they must affect each other in some way.
Locard's (Exchange Principle)
What type of transfer is this? (Indirect or Direct):
You sit on a chair that has chocolate on it and it is now on your pants.
--> This is because you are not directly on chocolate bar, it is already on chair)
What needs to be recorded for every picture?
- Direction of the picture
- Description of the picture
- Number of photo
- (If close of mid-view) Scale in photo
What is it called when an item on a crime scene sketch is measured to two fixed points?
What is a sample of DNA from the Crime Scene Investigator kept on file called?
What is the type of samples that is from suspects and victims?
What type pf container should be used for a bloody knife?
Bloody = DNA
--> Use paper or cardboard (NEVER PLASTIC)
How would you package a shirt that smelled like a fire?
Put it in an air-tight container
What should be used for a very small item instead of a regular envelope?
A Druggist fold (aka: Bindle)
Which amendment talks about: Set the dollar amount in dispute for a trial by jury.
Which amendment discussed rights against search and seizure and warrants?
Which amendment discusses trucks, juries, confronting accusers and knowing the charges?
Which amendment discusses bails, fines, and no cruel or unusual punishment?
Which amendment discusses: No double jeopardy, not forced to testify against one self; due process.
When are warrants not required?
- person freely consents
can search person and surroundings if person is placed under arrest
protective sweep -- for accomplices
visual check if no legitimate expectation of privacy
What are examples of Transient/Temporary?
- Temperature of the body
What are examples of Conditional?
- Radio on
- Open door
- Body location
--> Key Words (on/off, open/shut, location)
Forensic scientists must testify to _____ (facts or opinions)
According to the Innocence Project -- what gives the most faulty convictions?
Eye Witness misidentification
Why is it important to separate witnesses?
Precent the witnesses from talking to each other.
- Could cause:
--> false memories
--> collusion (conspiracy)
What must be included in a crime scene sketch?
- A scale
- North heading (or compass)
- Date and location of the crime scene
- Who made the sketch
- Date, Time, Location
What is the purpose of Chain of Custody?
To make sure that the evidence is admissible in court
Temporary evidence -- smoke smell
Physical evidence -- anything that can be touched or examined, in some way (backpack, bite marks, blood, etc.)
Class evidence -- bite marks, blood type, shell casing
Circumstantial evidence -- Jane's backpack at the scene
Individual evidence -- DNA from blood; DNA from victim, fingerprints from the victim.
Police are called to an apartment where a person was obviously murdered. They do NOT have a search warrant.
--> Under what conditions can they enter?
- The police can enter if:
--> They get consent from the owner.
--> MAYBE, a protective sweep -- ONLY if they can show they have reasonable reason to believe there is someone hiding in there.
- If a person is already dead, it is NOT an emergency
What do the police need to give to the judge to get a search warrant?
- Probable cause (can't just have a "fishing expedition"
- Indicate what they are looking for
- Indicate where they are going to search
- Don't necessarily need DNA or fingerprints
What is a Reference sample?
taken from a suspect (or victim) for comparison
What is an Elimination sample?
taken from crime scene personnel to "eliminate" them in case they contaminate the crime scene.
Notes: Evidence - (Which is circumstantial, transient, physical, testimonial, conditional)
- "I saw the person flee from the scene" (testimonial)
- Smell of gasoline (transient)
- A fingerprint matching the suspect was found at the scene (circumstantial)
- Show print (physical)
- Door open (conditional)
Which has greater value and why?
--> Physical evidence
--> Eyewitness testimony
- Physical evidence
--> Why: Eyewitness testimony has a HIGH error rate
Sets found in the same folder
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Forensics Unit 2: Study Guide (Pre-test + notes)
Forensics Unit 10: Ballistics/Trajectory
Forensics Unit 3: DNA
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