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English midterm the odyssey
Terms in this set (80)
Wife of Odysseus
Thinks Odysseus is dead
Misses her husband
In book 1 she yells at the bard to stop playing his song, and for the first time Telemachus rebuked her and told her to go back to her room
Prince of Ithaca, not the best ruler
In charge while his father is gone, he does not know how to handle the suitors
Advised by Athena that his father is still alive
Gorge on Telemachus' food and drinks
Want to marry Penelope
Meet with nurses and maids at night
What advice does Mentes give to Telemachus?
Mentes is Athena disguised as one of Odysseus' old friends, and she tells Telemachus a prophecy
Tells him to get the suitors out of the house, take control, find his father, and bring his father home and reunite his parents
How are the suitors portrayed?
Take advantage of Telemachus' situation without his father and his hospitality
Gorge on food and wine at parties
Try to marry Penelope
Who is "me"?
Who is the man of "twists and turns"?
Why can't Odysseus save his crew ultimately?
Because of their recklessness, greed, and mistakes
Who holds Odysseus back from going home? Why?
Calypso because she wants him as her husband
Which god does not take pity on Odysseus?
The story of Aegisthus is summarized in the notes above. What point does Zeus hope to make by sharing the story with the assembly of gods!
Wanted to show that gods shouldn't be blamed for things that happen to mortals (it is the mortals fault)
What does Athena ask of Zeus?
Athena asks Zeus to help Odysseus, and for permission to save Odysseus
How does Zeus feel about Odysseus?
He thinks it is hopeless to get Odysseus back, but he thinks Odysseus is a good guy
Why is Poseidon upset with Odysseus?
He blinded his son (Cyclops-Polyphemus)
What is Athena's plan?
Talk to Telemachus, make him speak against suitors, help him find his father and realize he's coming home
How does she enter Ithaca without being recognized as a goddess?
She disguises herself as Mentes (old friend of Odysseus)
Describe the scene Athena witnesses when she gets to Ithaca?
Sees ill-mannered suitors lined up for Queen's hand, chaos without Odysseus
Describe how Telemachus treats the new guest.
Honorably, like royalty
What information does she (Athena) share with Telemachus regarding his father, Odysseus?
That he is still alive (prophecy)
a character who sets off another character by contrast
Ex Telemachus and Orestes
How could Orestes be considered a foil to Telemachus?
Orestes takes immediate action, whereas Telemachus is laid back living with the suitors in his house
When we first meet Penelope, how is she described?
Sad and full of grief because she is reminded of her husband from the song being sung by the bard
Culture of the time
Father's are valued, patriarchal society
Describe Hermes. What is his relation to Zeus? What is his responsibility?
He is the messenger of the gods, he has to tell Calypso to send Odysseus home
Describe Calypso. What is ambrosia? Why does Calypso resist Hermes demands? How does she know Odysseus does not love her?
Calypso is a very beautiful nymph (lesser god) who has held Odysseus captive at her island against his will for a long time
Ambrosia is a drink of red nectar
She resists his demands by referring to the double standards of male gods
Odysseus is constantly crying there and he sleeps with her unwillingly
What does Odysseus have to do in order to leave Calypso's island?
Make a raft
Who is Ino and how does she help Odysseus?
when Odysseus was on his raft Poseidon saw him and caused storms for him
Ino gives odysseus a scarf and advice; tells him to wear the scarf and get to shore
How does Athena help Odysseus?
She gets him to shore after his raft breaks and she helps him to sleep
What two great dangers does Circe warn the men about? What advice does she give about meeting them?
Scylla and Charybdis
Tells them it's better to go through Scylla (six headed monster) because you will lose less men. Charybdis is a whirlpool and can destroy ALL the men and the ship.
What basic human quality do the Sirens represent? Compare them to the Lotus Eaters.
Both delay Odysseus's journey home and have the ability to make people want to stay with them and forget about home
What is Circe's warning about Helios's cattle? What will be the consequences to Odysseus? To his men?
Leave the cattle alone
If they harm the cattle the ship will break and Odysseus will become a broken man
What does Odysseus say is the most pitiful sight after Scylla and Charybdis?
His men crying and reaching their hands out to him
What disagreement do Eurylochus and Odysseus have as night approaches?
Whether or not to stop at Helios's island. Eurylochus and the crew want to stop because they are tired and hungry, but Odysseus knows from Circe it could be bad
Do the men obey Eurylochus because of his persuasive speech or Odysseus's absence?
Men ate the cattle against Odysseus's wishes
Who is Aeolus and what does he give Odysseus?
He is the king of all winds and he gives Odysseus a bag containing the dangerous winds for sailing and warns him not to open the bag
What does Aeolus do when the men show up on his island again?
He refuses to help them because he thinks Odysseus is cursed
Describe the place where Circe lives.
Many handmaids who work for her
Has a lot of food and wine
she has lions in front of her palace who most likely used to be men
What happens to Odysseus's men on Circe's island?
Circe makes them a potion and turns them into pigs
What does Hermes give Odysseus to save his men?
An herb (moly) which protects him from Circe's potions
Also tells him when he sees Circe to attempt to pierce her and she will fall in love with him and at that point he could ask her to change back his men
When Circe finally agrees to let Odysseus leave, what does she say he must do first?
Must sail to the Underworld (Hades) and consult Tiresias (blind prophet)
What is Odysseus doing while the men eat the cattle and what theme is evident in this situation?
He is sleeping
The theme that is evident is will of gods supersedes ambition of men
How does Helios demonstrate his anger to Odysseus's men?
Asks Zeus to get revenge on them
What agreement between two gods does Calypso explain to Odysseus?
Zeus and Helios agree to punish Odysseus for his crew killing the cattle
What impression of the Greek gods does this give you?
Even though Zeus has nothing against Odysseus, the gods work together and are willing to do things for each other
What is Odysseus disguised as when he returns to Ithaca?
Beggar so that he can kill all the suitors
How does Melantho treat Odysseus? What does Odysseus warn? How does Penelope respond?
Melantho bullies Odysseus and called him a pest/sleaze
Odysseus says Melantho will lose what she has
Penelope says Melantho will pay for what she said with her life
Describe the interaction between Odysseus and Penelope. How does Odysseus prove to her that he knew her "husband"? What does he tell Penelope of Odysseus's plans?
Penelope questions Odysseus
Odysseus (as the beggar) describes what Odysseus wore and it was something Penelope bought him
Delays coming home because he's getting more treasure
How does Eurycleia recognize Odysseus?
sees scar while washing his feet
What is Penelope's dilemma, as she describes through her dream? How does Odysseus interpret her dream?
She has all these men who want to marry her but she doesn't know what to do because she misses her husband
Odysseus says her dream means the suitors will die and Odysseus will return
How does Penelope delay marrying a suitor?
She weaves something and tells them when she is done she will pick someone to marry. At night she unweaves what she did to delay
Why is Penelope having a contest?
To pick a suitor as her husband
The contest is to string Odysseus's bow and arrow and shoot it through twelve axes (none of the men could do it except when Odysseus asked if he could try as the beggar just to see)
Who does Odysseus reveal his real identity to?
How does the contest progress? How does Odysseus win the contest? Which characters help Telemachus and Odysseus in their plans?
Each of the suitors try and fail
Odysseus wins because he asks (Aethon) if he can try, and he knows how to handle the bow and arrows
What is the significance of Penelope sleeping through Odysseus's revenge?
She will know what happens but she will still be innocent
Why is it appropriate that Antinous is the first to die?
He is considered the ring leader of the suitors and is the meanest of them all
How did Eurymachus try to save his own life?
He tries to calm Odysseus down and says Antinous was the only bad one, he also promises to repay what they took
Then he charges Odysseus but Odysseus shoots him with an arrow
What is the fate of the suitors and traitor maids?
Death, maids had to clean up mess then were hanged to death
Briefly summarize Athena's role in Book 22.
She is described as Mentes and encourages Odysseus but doesn't participate immediately. Preferring to test Odysseus's strength instead. Then she changes the trajectory of the arrows.
Homer begins by invoking the muse. The muses were omniscient goddesses of poetry, art, music, and dance. Muses were through to inspire the poet with the material he needed to recite the story.
In media res
in the middle of things
descriptive word or phrase which an author regularly uses to describe an object or more often, a person
Long, formal speech
Characters express thoughts and feelings by delivering long speeches to other characters. They do not speculate about their emotions or analyze their thought process.
A long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds and a series of adventures important to the nation or race
Brave, superhuman strength, success in battle, driving desire for immortality through valorous deeds (remember campbell's cycle of the epic hero)
The idea that the gods cause human successes or failures. However, the gods interference is in keeping with the personality of the character. In other words, the gods do not make anyone do anything that the person is not willing to do deep in his own being.
Homer uses elaborate comparisons in which he compares characters and situations in The Iliad and The Odyssey to objects or occurrences with which his audience is familiar.
Hospitality to strangers and the exchange of gifts
Known by the Greek term Xenia, "guest friendship" is shown by the exchange of gifts, goods, and services between individuals from different places. It involves the correct treatment of strangers and the duties of hospitality.
Known by the Greek term Kleos, the ancient Greeks were concerned with how people will be remembered after death. A noble kleos is the hero's consolation for dying. The value-system of the Ancient Greeks put more emphasis on successful performance and reputation in the eyes of others than on an inner-consciousness of right and wrong.
Reverence for the Gods
Notice the many examples of rituals and prayer to respect the gods and goddesses
"The man of twists and turns" Odysseus
"Wine dark sea"
"The bewitching nymph" Calypso
"Son of Cronos" Zeus
"Who marshals the thunderheads" Zeus
"Cool headed" Telemachus
"Lord of the war cry" Menelaus
Qualities of Lotus Eaters
Peaceful- "no notion of killing my companions"
Temptors- "gave them lotus to taste instead"
What might the lotus eaters represent? What connections can you make to modern day things that have the same effect?
How does Odysseus deal with the Lotus Eaters?
Forces his men back onto the ship
What quality does he possess that allows him to deal with them and sets him apart from his crew?
Three qualities of Cylcops
What might he cyclops represent?
The uncivilized "monster"
Evidence of physical ability: forces his entire crew back to the ship and secured them, so they can leave
Evidence of intellectual prowess: will power, being able to resist temptation
Evidence of physical ability: blinded Polyphemus with spear and hid under the sheep's bellies
Evidence of intellectual prowess: cleverness- his plan to get out and by saying his name is Nobody
Evidence of physical ability: tying himself down with the rope to the mass of the ship
Evidence of intellectual prowess: will power being able to resist temptation, follows Circe's advice which was smart
Scylla and Charybdis
Evidence of physical ability: able to get past them alive, has to row the ship. Shows physical strength
Evidence of intellectual prowess: will power, being able to make the tough decision of sacrificing six men to Scylla instead of losing all of them to Charybdis. Took Circe's advice.
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