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Assessment Study Guide - 10.21.14
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Terms in this set (38)
ordinal scale
scale on which values of measurement are ordered from best to worst or from worst to best. the difference between adjacent values are unknown.
equal-interval scale
a scale in which the differences between adjacent values are equal, but in which there is no absolute or logical zero
mean
the arithmetic average of scores in a distribution
variance
a numerical index describing the dispersion of a set of scores around the mean of the distribution; specifically the average squared distance of the scores from the mean
standard deviation
a measure of the degree of dispersion in a distribution; the square root of the variance
skew
asymmetry in a distribution; the distribution of scores below the mean is not a mirror image of the distribution above the mean
kurtosis
the peakedness of a curve, or the rate at which a curve rises
mode
the most frequently obtained score in a distribution
median
a score that divides the top 50 percent of test takers by the bottom 50 percent of test takers
range
the distance between the extremes in a set of scores, including those extremes, the highest score less the lowest score, plus one
correlation coefficient
a numerical index of the relationship between two or more variables
objective scoring
scoring based on observable qualities and not influenced by emotion, guess or personal bias
subjective scoring
scoring that is not based on observable qualities, rather on personal impressions and private criteria
percent correct
the number correct divided by either the number attempted or the total number
accuracy
percentage of student's responses that are correct
instructional level
usually accuracy that is between 85 and 95 percent
frustration level
usually accuracy that is less than 85 percent correct, usually means the material is too difficult
independent level
usually accuracy that is 95 or higher
fluency
the rate and automaticity an individual can complete a given task
retention
the percentage of correct responses recalled following learning; also called "maintenance", "recall" or "memory"
grade equivalent
a derived score that expresses a student's performance as the average performance for a particular grade. expressed in grades and tenths of grades for example 7.1 (seventh year, first month)
percentile ranks
derived scores that indicates the percentage of people whose scores are at or below a given raw score
standard scores
the general name for a derived score that has been transformed to produce a distribution with a predetermined mean and standard deviation
z scores
standard score with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
t scores
a standard score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10
IQs
intelligence quotients
stanine
short for standard nines; a standard score band that divides a distribution into nine parts. the middle seven are each .50 standard deviation wide and the fifth is centered on the mean
normal curve equivalents
standard scores with a mean equal to 100 and a standard deviation equal to 21.06
norms
in assessment, the group of students to whom a person's tested performance is compared and from which various descriptive statistics are calculated
criterion referenced
test that measures a person's skills in terms of absolute measure of mastery
norm-referenced
test that compares an individual's performance to the performance of his or her peers
achievement standards- referenced
a type of test that involves ascertaining the degree to which students are meeting state and national standards
achievement
what has been learned as a result of instruction
attainment
when an individual has learned, regardless of where it has been learned
standards referenced
these type of test items are associated with specific educational outcomes (standards) that comprise a state's curriculum standards for elementary and secondary education
diagnostic achievement test
a test designed to identify a student's specific skill development strengths and weaknesses
instructional match
instruction that is matched to a student's specific level of skill development
normative updates
the re-standardization of a test by giving it to a new norm sample without changing the test items
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