The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.
The expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, and other related processes.
Belief that people control their own destinies and deal with various environmental factors in ways that are dynamic and contingent and that unfold unpredictably over history.
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people.
Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics.
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian.
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet; has some characteristics of each language.
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
A constructed international auxiliary language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication; created by L.L. Zamenhof.
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages; usually used for quick and efficient communication.
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people; has greatly accelerated during the past 300 years.
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three.
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented.
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts.
A religion in which a single person takes on the role of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world.
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americans, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
The world's most widespread religion; monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide; three major categories are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet; based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people - such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system.
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from the cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region.
People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity.
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed.
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods.
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government.