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AP Psychology Unit 3- Neuroscience
Terms in this set (133)
The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex
was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the
Which endocrine gland regulates body growth
The master gland of the endocrine system is the
Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain scan?
A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n)
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would most be likely to make use of a(n)
What is the main difference between an MRI and an fMRI scan?
MRI scans show structural details of the brain, fMRI scans show structure and activity levels.
Which of the following techniques would surgeons use in mapping the areas of the brain responsible for specific activities, such as movement or speech?
positron emission tomography (PET)
In creating more effective treatments for pain, researchers would use which of the following techniques for identifying regions of the brain that handle pain?
functional MRI (fMRI)
The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex
Which of the following structures in the brainstem helps coordinate movements and lies above the medulla?
The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.
In which brain structure are nerves from the left side of the brain routed to the right side of the body?
The reticular formation is located in the
Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
Your ability to experience physical sensations is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
Ellen volunteers during her AP psychology class to try to balance a yardstick on her two fingers. While her eyes are open, she finds the task quite easy. However, when she closes her eyes, she finds the same task almost impossible. Which brain region relies on visual information in coordinating our voluntary movements?
The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?
Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
The secretions of the pituitary gland are most directly regulated by the
The thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebrum is called the
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of
The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
The parietal lobes are to __________ as the occipital lobes are to _________.
sensing touch; seeing
Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
Which region of the brain will a fMRI show as active when a person is looking at a photo?
In 1848, Phineas Gage, a railroad construction foreman, survived when an explosion drove an iron rod through his head. The once friendly, soft- spoken Gage became irritable and dishonest. Gage's case provided evidence that which region of the brain plays a role in personality and behavior?
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements is called the
While mapping the motor cortex, researchers Foerster and Penfield found that
body areas requiring the greatest control occupied the greatest amount of cortical space
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
Our lips are more sensitive than our knees to sensations of touch due to which of the following?
A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips.
The association areas are located in the
The most extensive regions of the cerebral cortex, which enable learning and memory, are called the
When asked to describe a picture that showed two boys stealing cookies behind a woman's back, a patient replied, "Mother is away her working her work to get her better, but when she's looking the two boys looking the other part." Which brain region has most likely been damaged?
Which brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
If a blind person uses one finger to read Braille, the brain area dedicated to that finger expands as the sense of touch invades the visual cortex. This is an example of
Recent brain research contradicts previously held beliefs, indicating that new neurons are actually formed in the brain. What is this process called?
Physical exercise and exposure to stimulating environments are most likely to promote
Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the
Split-brain patients had their _________ surgically cut.
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce
The ability to simultaneously copy different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic of those whose _____________ has been cut.
Someone trying to figure out an optical illusion is probably experiencing increased brain waves and blood flow to which brain structure?
Someone trying to add a long series of three digit numbers is probably experiencing increased brain waves and bloodflow to which brain structure?
Which brain structure might be most active when answering the question "What do the following words have in common: plane, butter, insect?"
Researchers use dichotic listening task to investigate right-left differences in an intact brain. In this task, a different verbal stimulus is presented simultaneously to each ear. Findings suggest that participants more quickly recall information heard by the right ear. This suggest that
the left hemisphere is dominant in the language processing.
our subjective awareness of ourselves and our enviroment
What is the interdisciplinary study of how brain activity is linked with our mental processes
Which kind of psychological researcher would be the most interested in the research question, " Do people who lose most of their cerebral cortex in an accident still exhibit signs of consciousness?"
When looking at a flying bird, we are consciously aware of our cognitive processing ("It's a bird!") but not of our subconscious processing of the bird's form, color, distance, and movement. This illustrates what psychologists call
Which of the following describes evidence for the brain's dual- processing ability?
The brainstem keeps our heart beating while the cerebral cortex maintains awareness of the outside world.
Which cognitive neuroscience term reflects the idea that "much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and acting operates outside our conscious awareness"?
The nineteenth- century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
Who believed that bumps on the skull reveal mental abilities and character traits?
Professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as
Your friend is taking her first psychology class. She comes to you saying, "I don't understand why we are studying the brain; I thought this was a psychology class." Because of your background in psychology, your best response should be
"Everything psychological is simultaneously biological."
Which type of psychologist most directly investigates the links between biological activity and our thinking and behaviors?
Dendrites are branching extensions of
Nerve cells in the brain receive life-supporting nutrients and insulating myelin from
One function of the glial cells is to
provide nutrients to interneurons
The function of dentrites is to
receive incoming signals from other neurons
An axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
The longest part of a neuron is likely to be the
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
Within a single neuron the action potential
travels in one direction toward the axon terminals
The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the
The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a(n)
Resting potential is to action potential as ___________ is to ____________.
The selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a(n)
With regards to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on the knoblike terminals at the end of the
A synapse is a(n)
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the
Reuptake refers to the
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters molecules by a sending neuron.
Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin. Which process does this drug prevent from taking place?
When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
Jose has played a long bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort his lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an
oversupply of glutamate
The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter
Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neural transition. Where does this interference take place?
Some opiate drugs have molecular structures so similar to endorphins that they mimic endorphin's euphoric effects in the brain, making these opiate drugs which kind of molecule?
What are the molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and mimic that neurotransmitter's effects called?
A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Drugs used to treat this disorder prevent the action of dopamine by keeping it from binding to its receptors. These drugs are
Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to tis receptor sites on a dendrite and block that neurotransmitter's effects are called what?
Botulin is a poison with a molecular structure so similar to acetylcholine (ACh) that it blocks the effects of ACh in synapses, making botulin which kind of molecule?
Which of the following are located exclusively within the brain and spinal cord?
As you are reading this question, the cells in your eyes are firing in response to the light coming from this paper. Which type of neuron is carrying this message to the brain?
The body's speedy, electrochemical information system is called the
Nerves and neural cables containing many
For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
Motor neurons are an important part of the
peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
The somatic nervous system is a component of the _______________ nervous system
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the
sympathetic nervous system
When Mr. Valdez thought his 1-year-old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heartbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his ________ nervous system.
An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
While you are hiking in the mountains, a rattlesnake slithers across your trail. Which of the following triggers the "fight-or-flight" response, increasing your heart rate and blood pressure, as you run away?
sympathetic nervous system
Motor neurons are to the ___________ nervous system as interneurons are to the _____________ nervous system.
While relaxing in a lawn chair enjoying a cool drink, which of the following triggers the "rest-and-digest" response, as your heart rate slows and digestion begins?
parasympathetic nervous system
Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
Neural networks refer to
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple
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