waterproofs and protects, helps regulate body temperature and communicated to the body through temperature, pressure and pain receptors.
Line and enclose several body cavities where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduced friction from muscle movement.
Fuction of the endocrine system
instrumental in regulating mood, growth, and development, tissue function, metabolsim, sexual function and reporductive processes.
Functions of the Nervous system
allow body to respond to inside and outside stimuli
Functions of the Skeletal system
protective function, formation of blood cells, storehouse of mineral
Levels of structural organization sequence
chemical leve, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, and organism level.
What happenes to the thoracic cavity when you ventaliate
What are the formed elemenets of blood
White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
Human Blood Groups:
Pathway of blood through the heart
Superior vena cave, innferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valce, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lung capillaries, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta
Carries oxygen depleted blood away from the heart and to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood back to heart
carries oxygentated blood away from heart to the body, and return deoxygentated blood back to the heart
Function of Lymph nodes
filter lymph and help activate the immune system
Function of lacteals
to absorb dietary lipids into the lymphathis system
Funcation Anatomy of the Respiratory system: the nasal cavity, _____, larynx, trachea, Right and left primary bronchi, the _______,
pharynx, the lungs
Red blood cells, white blood cells, plasama, platetes
Functions of Blood: •Supply of oxygen and nutrients to different tissues in our body. •______ of waste products from body like, •Provides_______to body against foreign particles. •Helps in transport of hormones throughout the body. •Blood clotting as means of natural repair of cells. •Regulation of temperature in bodies of human beings. •Maintaining pH balance inside body.
Removal , immunity
Sympathetic nerve stimulation's general action is to mobilize the body's resources under ______; to induce the ______________response. It is, however, constantly active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis
stress, fight or flight
Parasympathetic nerve stimulation is responsible for stimulation of ____________ activities that occur when the body is at rest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, _________ and defecation
rest and digest, digestion
The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the___________, and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the __________
arachnoid mater, central nervous system
When transmitters flow across a chemical synapse, they have one of two effects on the post-synaptic neuron (the neuron that comes after the synapse). They either ________ (make it more likely to fire a nerve impulse itself) or_________(make it less likely to fire a nerve impulse itself)
excite it or inhibit it
Neuron is made up of:
Cell Body: contain majority of cell's cytoplasm & organelles.
___________: Extensions which generally serve in the reception of nerve signals
Axons: Long fibers used to transmit _____ ______
Often surrounded by Schwann Cells (PNS) or oligodendrocytes (CNS) which coat axons with a Myelin sheath
Insulates axons and speeds nerve impulses as impulses jump from the Nodes of Ranvier.
End at Synaptic terminals. At the Synapses which are small spaces between adjacent nerve or effector cells
Denrites, transmite nervous impluses
Function of a Neuron:
Acts to allow communication between cells
Muscles are named according to their______, origin and insertion, _______ of muscle fibers, size, shape, type of ____ _______, or other criteria, such as nearby bones
Location, directon, action produced.
Methods to regenerating ATP during muscle activity: 1.Creatine Phosphate . 2._________ 3. Break down of triglycerides
what happens at the neuromusclar junction?
A neuromuscular junction is a place in the body where the axons of motor nerves meet the muscle, thus transmitting messages
bone cells death and matrix destruction occur in tissue adjoining the fracture sight. Next the perichondrium and endosteum respond by rapid proliferation of fibroblasts resulting in the formation of a callus. This immature trabecular of bone surrounds the fracture and penetrates the extremities of the fractured bone.
Osteon is for the
What makes up the pectoral girdle?
2 clavicles and 2 scapulae
What makes up the pelvic girdle?
ilium, the ischium, and the pubis
In Tissue Repair, lost tissue is replaced by ______ ______ which matures to form _____ tissue
granulation tissue ,scar
Melanin granules protect what?
the DNA within the nucleus from being damaged by the ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Function of Merocrine sweat glands is to cool the body by - ________
Apocrine sweat gland become active at _____. They secrete sweat during time of pain, _____, and _______ activity.
Puperty, Stress, sexual
Sebaceous glands secrete _____.
Sebum softens and lubricates the skin. It also _______ the skin's permeability to ______ and is quite a bactericidal
Attached to each hair is a bundle of smooth muscle known as an _____ ____ ______. In times of fright or cold, these muscles contract and cause the hair to stand on end - and produces _____ ______.
arrector pili muscle. goose bumps.
Osteoblasts are ___ ___ cells. They Synthesize and secrete ____ _____ and other organic components of bone matrix. Also they Initiate the process of ______.
Bone Building. collagen fibers, calcification
Osteoclasts are cells that digest what?
Osteoclasts are concentrated in the _______.
what are the three external anatomical features of the brain?
the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, and the caudal
During inspiration, as long as pressure within the alveoli is ____ than atmospheric pressure air will continue to move ____, but as soon as the pressure is stabilized air movement stops.
During expiration a positive pressure (pressure in the lungs becomes ____ than atmospheric pressure), and air moves out of the lungs by flowing ____ its pressure gradient
greater , down
The main stimulus for breathing is what?
High Carbon Dioxide Levels in the blood.
Carbon dioxide is transported by: DISSOLVED CO2, BOUND TO ______ AND PLASMA PROTEINS, and _______ IONS (HCO3- )
Components of the digestive system are : mouth, esophagus, ______, small and large _____, and rectrum.
What is the function of the digestive system:
break down food and deliver the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells.
a length of DNA code letters that carry the instructions to make a proteins, using amino acid, made of dna
version of gene
allele thats expressed whether you have 1 or 2 copies
allele thats expressed only when there are 2 copies
is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism - blue eyes
letters ex (bb)
is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell