French Revoluition test

--France was the center of Enlightenment ideas and their culture was widely praised and imitated around the world.
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--held high offices in government--included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers Bourgeoisie--(middle class) were highly educated, some were as rich as nobles but paid high taxes.rban lower class--tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, was the poorest group within the 3rd estate. Were often out of work and often hungry.Peasants--largest group within the 3rd estate and made up 80% of the population. Half of their income went to taxes....even on things such as salt.)Economic Woes----between the high taxes and the cost of living the economy was harshest on the 3rd estate. The government was in deep debt and cut off from the banks. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette spent extravagantly and did not fix the economic situation.3)Weak Leadership--Louis the XVI was a weak leader and his wife often gave bad advice to him. He often did not listen to his political advisors....she was nicknamed "Madame Deficit".A meeting was called where representatives from all three estates would be.The 3rd estate demanded more power since they represented 97% of the population.National Assembly--the 3rd estate gave their delegates this name and began pass laws and reforms for the french people...essentially ending the absolute monarchy.3 days later they were locked out of their meeting room and broke down a door to an indoor tennis court.Tennis court oath--the pledged to not leave until they had drawn up a constitution.The king and queen ordered mercenaries to surround the palace at Versailles..Rumors flew--- Louis was going to use military force to disband the National Assembly that foreign troops were going to come in and kill French citizens.People began to gather weapons. On July 14th they stormed the prison at Bastille and hacked up a couple guards and paraded through the streets with their heads on a pikes. Would become known as "Bastille Day"...kind of like our 4th of July.Senseless panic over the thought of nobles hiring mercenaries to kill peasants.Peasants became militant and started attacking nobles and burning their houses down and burning old legal papers that tied them to the land.1789--Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. They had axes, knives, and other weapons and demanded that the National Assembly solve their problems. They also demanded that the king and queen return to Paris...once they left their palace at Versailles they would essentially never be in power again.Change is now imminent.Out of fear the nobles made grand speeches preaching about equality and gave up the old regime rights.-Rights of Man...contained similar enlightenment ideas contained in the declaration of independenceState Controlled Church--assembly took over the church's lands and political abilitiesLouis tried to escape but was caught at the border and brought back under guardEveryone felt the fear in France....members of the church, nobles, and peasants...King reluctantly signed a constitution--essentially ending absolute monarchy.Legislative Assembly--was created and had the power to make laws and approve or reject declarations of war, but the king still had the power to enforce the laws.Assembly quickly divided Far left-Radicals--wanted to do away with all old orders and make sweeping changesMiddle-Moderates--wanted some changes but not as many as radicals Far right-Conservatives--upheld the idea of limited monarchy and wanted few changesEmigres--nobles and others who fled France but wanted to undo the revolution and restore the Old Regime.Sans Culottes---Parisian workers and small shop-keepers wanted the revolution to bring sweeping changes to France.."those without knee breeches"Other countries saw what was happening in France and quickly became alarmed. They wanted France to restore the absolute monarchy and Louis XVI to the throne.France ended up going to war with Austria and Prussia.War began badly for France...Prussia warned the French not to harm the royal family.....the mob massacred the royal guards and imprisoned the king, queen, and the children.Citizens took matters into their own hands, they raided the prison and killed over 1,000 prisoners. Many nobles, priests, and royal sympathizers died by the mob.Under pressure, they dissolved the Legislative Assembly, The National Convention took control. They set aside the constitution, abolished the monarchy, declared France a republic, and granted men the right to vote.Jacobins--another radical group, took control. Jean-Paul Marat was one of the most prominent. A newspaper editor that called for the death of all those who support the king.Louis XVI was tried for treason, found guilty, and sentenced to death by the guillotine.Enemies of the French republic--foreign enemies, ad peasants who were horrified by the king's execution, priests who would not accept government control,and rival leaders who were stirring up rebellion in the provinces.Maximilien Robespierre--Jacobin who came to power. He wanted to wipe out all of France's past. He became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety.He and his supporters changed the calendar, dividing the year into 12 months of 30 days and renaming each month. This calendar had no Sundays because the radicals considered religion old-fashioned and dangerous.He basically governed like a dictator and his rule was known as the Reign of Terror. Under his leadership people were often tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon.People who he considered dangerous were people who challenged his leadership. Their only crime was they were less radical.Potentially as many as 40,000 were killed during the Reign of terror....Georges Danton, people as young as 18 (a guy who cut down a tree that was planted as a symbol of liberty).July 1794, people grew tired of Robespierre they demanded his arrest and execution. It ended on July 28th 1794 with his execution via the guillotine.A new system was set up with a new government in 1795 placed power in the hands of the upper middle class, called for a 2-house legislature, and an executive body made up of 5 men. The general they found for the military was Napoleon Bonaparte.Napoleon Bonaparte, a military genius, seizes power in France and makes himself emperor.In 1795, Napoleon defeats royalist rebels attacking National ConventionNapoleon wins stunning victories in Italy, gaining popularityNews of his defeats in Egypt is suppressedIn November 1799, he carries out coup d'état—seizure of power.Napoleon defeats British, Russians, Austrians who join forces against him-New constitution is approved through plebiscite—vote of the people.To fix economy, he sets up national banking system, efficient tax collectionEstablishes lycées—government-run public schools to train officialsSigns concordat—agreement—with pope restoring Catholicism in FranceCreates Napoleonic Code—uniform system of lawsIn December 1804, Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France-In 1801, Napoleon attempts to retake colony of Saint Domingue but failsGives up on the Americas and concentrates on Europe-Sells the Louisiana Territory to United States for $15 million in 1803-Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces against NapoleonNapoleon crushes enemy forces in several brilliant battles.Napoleon forces Austria, Russia, Sweden to sign peace treaties.In 1805, British win Battle of Trafalgar—ensures British naval superiority.This defeat forces Napoleon to give up plan of invading Britain so he looks for another way to control Britain..Napoleon controls Europe except for Britain, Portugal, Sweden, Ottomans. He has puppet rulers in some countries, alliances with others. French Empire reaches largest extent from 1807 to 1812.Napoleon strikes Britain through blockade—forced closing of ports.Continental System—economic plan to strengthen Europe, weaken Britain.Smugglers and uncooperative allies make France's blockade fail.Britain responds with blockade of its own, led by its stronger navy.Napoleon sends troops across Spain to attack Portugal, causing protest.Napoleon makes his brother king of Spain, making things worse.Spanish fight as guerrillas—small groups that attacked and then disappear, the British aid Spanish guerrillas.Napoleon loses 300,000 soldiers during this Peninsular War.Nationalist rebels fight the French in other conquered territories.Relations with Russia break down, Napoleon decides to invade.In June 1812, Napoleon's army marches into Russia with 420,000 men.Russians use scorched-earth policy—destroying crops, livestock.In September 1812, Russians retreat from Moscow after Battle of Borodino.Napoleon finds Moscow abandoned and burning.Napoleon retreats, losing thousands of soldiers to raids, cold weather.Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, Austria join forces against Napoleon.He raises another army, but meets quick defeat by allied powers.He surrenders and is exiled to the island of Elba.Louis XVIII, new king, is soon overthrown and Napoleon returns from exile.Waterloo—British, Prussian forces defeat Napoleon's army.This defeat ends Hundred Days—Napoleon's last attempt at power.Legitimacy—monarchs deposed by Napoleon are returned to thrones.Leaders hope to restore order through these changes.Congress of Vienna succeeds in getting all European governments together.Fair deals are worked out so that the meeting does not lead to more war.European nations agree to preserve peace, which lasts almost 40 years.Holy Alliance—Russia, Prussia, Austria pledge to fight revolution Concert of Europe—European nations pledge to help fight revolutions Conservative governments rule across Europe, but new ideas have impact Napoleon's replacing king of Spain set off rebellions in Spanish America Many former colonies of Spain and Portugal gain independence Britain, Prussia gain power; spreading nationalism leads to revolutions.