Vocabulary Quarter 2
Terms in this set (68)
Economy of words; A telegraphic sentence is a sentence that expresses a straightforward, no-frills idea or action. Telegraphic sentences are very simple to write and read. Telegraphic sentences contain no unnecessary words. They are very easy to identify because of their lack of embellishment or superfluous components.
The following are some examples of telegraphic sentences.
The weather is uncomfortable.
evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret.
an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
clearly stated or shown; forthright in expression
(noun) a person inclined to question or doubt all accepted opinions
respectful and polite in a submissive way
Long and tiresome
qualitative evidence vs quantitative evidence
Descriptive information, which often comes from interviews, focus groups or artistic depictions such as photographs. vs. Numerical or statistical information (data), which often comes from surveys, surveillance or from administration records.
to belittle or degrade a person or idea
verb tense used to discuss things hypothetically or things we wish would happen (ie. If he were a ghost, I would like him)
when a verb, adjective or any other type of speech is converted into a noun.
example: turning the word "legalize" into "legalization"
a controversial argument attacking a specific opinion or doctrine
to repeat something, oftentimes for clarification
when one acknowledges opponent's argument in writing. Shows that the author is logical and fair minded.
serves to excite, stimulate, or spark controversy
logical connection between a claim and a supporting fact
an angry and usually long speech/writing that strongly criticizes someone/something
based on guesses or ideas about what might happen or be true rather than on facts
wary and unwilling to take risks
the attitude of a person or organization towards something
a sentence that gives a direct command (e.g. Get out!)
honest; truthful; frank
based on personal beliefs or opinions
a passage or section that deviates from the central theme in speech or writing
understood though unexpressed
To start a persuasive piece: deductive reasoning.
Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.
Minor premise: All spotted bunnies are mammals.
Conclusion: Therefore, all spotted bunnies are warm-blooded.
A proposition that your argument argues, and which your conclusion is drawn from. Either major or minor in syllogism.
-"Identical twins often have different IQ scores.
-Identical twins inherit the same genes.
-So environment must play some part in determing IQ.
-->The first two statements in this argument give reasons for accepting the third.
(Howard Kahane and Nancy Cavender, Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, 8th ed., Wadsworth, 1998)
to deduce or conclude information from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements
An argument based on the failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack.
A false assumption that because two things are alike in one or more respects, they are necessarily alike in some other respect. (ie. People are like dogs. They respond best to clear discipline.)
Involves biasing the reader by using word choices that have strong positive or negative connotations., "No one in his right mind would ever do anything that dumb."
appeal to false authority
people are much more likely to believe the claim of an expert, so "this" manipulates the trust in authority to make a duplicitous claim. It can be done in two ways: misquoting (or selectively quoting) or quoting a fake expert (a PhD advising on medicine because he's a "doctor."
ad populum (bandwagon)
using a point's widespread belief or popularity to prove its accuracy
fallacy, fallacious reasoning
an incorrect belief or supposition based on faulty data, defective evidence, or false information
Factual, related to reality or physical objects; not influenced by emotions, unbiased
Credibility and character of a person; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals
stating something too strongly, exaggeration
an exaggeration through statements that appear to be all-inclusive, when they aren't
Reasoning from a specific case or cases to a general rule.
A weak or imaginary opposition set up only to be easily confuted
A fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence.
A style or tactic in writing that has the power to evoke emotion in the audience, especially pity
Appeals to an audience's sense of intellect; Achieved by providing valid and relevant facts which support the speaker's position
A person who offers an argument in defense of something controversial
Repetition of an idea using different words, often for emphasis or other effect
Attacking, discrediting an opposing view
Rebuttal, rebut, rebutting
A counterargument, especially in debate, to the opposition
A logical fallacy where an assessment is proven by a restatement of the claim
The Bible is the Word of God because God tells us it is... in the Bible.
post hoc ergo propter hoc
A logical fallacy defined by events in occurring in succession must be caused by one another, faulty cause and effect Example: The rooster crows immediately before sunrise, therefore the rooster causes the sun to rise.
Begging the question
A fallacy in which a claim is based on evidence that is also in doubt
Abortion is unjust murder.
Murder is illegal.
Therefore abortion should be made illegal, since it is murder.
-Credibility of the author
-"Appeal of credibility"
a positive statement
-a confident and forceful statement of fact or belief
-A clause followed by phrases and/or clauses that provide further information for the main clause Example: The fire alarm went off, making a loud clanging noise, startling everyone, and causing some people to knock over their chairs.
A thing that serves to illustrate that a system or situation is bad and deserves to be condemned.
Something, especially a clue, that is or is intended to be misleading or distracting. example:We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.
Appeasing, intending to PLACATE, attempting to calm someone down.
belittling or undervaluing oneself; excessively modest
Distant, reserved in manner; uninvolved
appeal to false authority
Using an authority as evidence in your argument when the authority is not really an authority on the facts relevant to the argument. As the audience, allowing an irrelevant authority to add credibility to the claim being made. "Donald Trump says that there is no global warming...so it must be true..."
Either/Or (Also known as false dilemma)
A fallacy of oversimplification that offers a limited number of options (usually two) when in reality more options are available.
Example: America: Love it or Leave it!
when a key term or phrase is used in an ambiguous way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in another portion of the argument. Example: Sure philosophy helps you argue better, but do we really need to encourage people to argue? There's enough hostility in this world.
A leap of logic; a statement that doesn't follow logically.
Examples: She's wearing red shoes. Her favorite color must be red.
I read about a pitbull attack. My neighbor owns a pitbull. My life is in danger.
assumed that because someone else has done a thing, there is nothing wrong with doing it.
Example: "Other Premiership (soccer) clubs charge more, therefore our ticket prices are justified."
not easily convinced; having doubts or reservations.
given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behavior.
grimly mocking or cynical.
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