Psych 330 Unit 3
Terms in this set (73)
Any physical characteristic or behavioral tendency that enhances the odds of reproductive success for an individual or for other individuals with similar genes
From time to time these people worry about their appearance and fear that others may snub them because they don't quite measure up on this dimension
the extent to which two people believe they are similar
the degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships. Differential styles initially develop in the interactions between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about self worth and interpersonal trust
The extent to which two individuals share the same attitudes
The formulations of Heider and of Newcomb that specify the relationships among (1) an individuals liking for another person, (2) their attitude about a given topic, and (3) the other person's attitude about the same topic. Balance (liking plus agreement) results in positive emotional state. Imbalance (liking plus disagreement) results in negative state and a desire to restore balance. Nonbalance (disliking plus either agreement or disagreement) leads to indifference.
When the left and the right side of the body ( or parts of the body) are alike
A relationship in which two people spend a great deal of time together, interact in a variety of situations, and provide mutual emotional support
Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, shared interests, respect, and concern for one another's welfare
In Sternberg's triangular love model, a complete and ideal love that combines intimacy, passion, and decision (commitment)
dismissing attachment style
A style characterized by high self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. This is a conflicted and somewhat insecure style in which and the individual feels that they deserve a close relationship but is frustrated because of mistrust of potential partners. The result is the tendency to reject the other person at some point in the relationship to avoid being the one who is rejected.
This refers to a personal relationship based on hatred and malice in which one person wishes to produce another person's downfall and attempts to sabotage the person's life progress
A style characterized by a low self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. This is the most insecure and least adaptive attachment style.
Refers to an interpersonal association in which two people influence each others' lives. They often focus their thoughts on one another and regularly engage in joint activities.
An attitudinal dimension underlying attachment styles that involves the belief that other people are generally trustworthy, dependable, and reliable as opposed to the belief that others are generally untrustworthy, undependable, and unreliable. This is the most successful and most desirable attachment style.
In Sternberg's triangular model of love, the closeness felt by two people; the extent to which they are bonded
The unpleasant emotional and cognitive state based on desiring close relationships but being unable to attain them
A combination of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships
A personality disposition characterized by unreasonably high self-esteem, a feeling of superiority, a need for admiration, sensitivity to criticism, a lack of empathy, and exploitative behavior.
need for affiliation
The basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships
In Sternberg's triangular model of love, the sexual motives and sexual excitement associated with a couple's relationship
An intense and often unrealistic emotional response to another person. When this emotion is experienced, it is usually perceived as an indication of love, but to outside observers it appears to be infatuation.
The combination of characteristics that are evaluated as beautiful or handsome at the positive extreme and as unattractive at the negative extreme
preoccupied attachment style
A style characterized by low self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. This is a conflicted and a somewhat insecure style in which the individual strongly desires a close relationship but feels that they are unworthy of of the partner and is thus vulnerable to being rejected.
proportion of similarity
The number of specific indicators that two people are similar divided by the number of specific indicators that two people are similar plus the number of specific indicators that they are dissimilar
In attraction research, the physical closeness between to individuals with respect to where they live, where they sit in a classroom, where they work, and so on. The smaller the physical distance, the greater the probability that the two people will come into repeated contact experiencing repeated exposure to one another, positive affect, and the development of mutual attraction.
Zajonc's finding that frequent contact with any mildly negative, neutral, or positive stimulus results in an increasingly positive evaluation of that stimulus
Rosenbaum's provocative proposal that attraction is not increased by similar attitudes but is simply decreased by dissimilar attitudes. This hypothesis is incorrect as stated, but it is true that dissimilar attitudes tend to have negative effects that are stronger than the positive effects of similar attitudes
secure attachment style
A style characterized by high self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. This is the most successful and most desirable attachment style.
The consistent finding that people respond positively to indications that another person is similar to themselves and negatively to indications that another person is dissimilar from ourselves
social comparison theory
Festinger (1954) suggested that people compare themselves to others because for many domains and attributes there is no objective yardstick to evaluate ourselves against, and other people are therefore highly informative
triangular model of love
Sterberg's conceptualization of love relationships.
Love felt by one person for another who does not feel love in return
The apparent movement of a single, stationary source of light in a dark room. Often used to study the emergence of social norms of and social influence
The extent to whoch we are attracted to a social group and want to belong in it; all forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group
A form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another
A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behaviors to adhere to existing social norms
A technique for increasing compliance in which target people are told that they have only limited time to take advantage of some offer or to obtain some item
Norms simply indicating what most people do in a given situations
A procedure for gaining compliance in which requesters begin with a large request and then, when this is refused, retreat to a smaller one (the one they actually desired all along)
Serious forms of mental disorders in which individuals engage in unhealthy, and sometimes dangerous, efforts to control their body weight. Research findings indicate social influence exerted by the media may play an important role in these disorders
A procedure for gaining compliance in which requesters begin with a small request and then, when this is granted, escalate to a larger one (the one they actually desired all along.
The need to be distinguishable from others in some aspects
Norms specifying what ought to be done; what is approved or disapproved behavior in a given situation
informational social influence
Social influence based on the desire to be correct (ie., to possess accurate perceptions of the social world)
A technique for increasing compliance in which an offer or deal is changed to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has accepted it.
normative focus theory
A theory suggesting that norms will influence behavior only to the extent that they are focal for the people involved at the time the behavior occurs
normative social influence
Social influence based on the desire to like or accepted by other people
A form of social influence in which one person simply orders one or more others to perform some action(s)
playing hard to get
A technique that can be used for increasing compliance by suggesting that a person or object is scarce and hard to obtain
Efforts by one or more individuals to change the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors from other people
symbolic social influence
Social influence resulting from the mental representation of others or our relationships with them
Rules indicating how individuals are expected to behave in specific situations
A technique for gaining compliance in which requesters offer additional benefits to target people before they have decided whether to comply with or reject specific requests
Behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment
A pattern of behavior in which one individual is chosen as a target of repeated aggression by one or more others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (the bullies)
The view that providing angry people with an opportunity to express their aggression impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more harmful forms of aggression.
cultures of honor
Cultures in which there are strong norms indicating that aggression is ab appropriate response to insults to one's honor
drive theories (of aggression)
Theories suggesting that aggression stems from external conditions that arousal the motive to harm or injure others. The most famous of these is the frustration-aggression hypothesis
A principle suggesting that in situations in which they interact frequently with potential victims, most people try - when engaging in aggression - to maximize the harm they produce while minimizing the danger of retaliation
excitation transfer theory
A theory suggesting that arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emotional reactions occurring in later situations
The suggestion that frustration is a powerful determinant of aggression\
Giving up the desire to punish someone who has hurt us and seeking, instead, to act in kind, helpful ways toward them
general aggression model (GAM)
A modern theory of aggression suggesting that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables that influence arousal, affective stages, and cognitions
Aggression in which the prime objective is inflicting some kind of harm on the victim
A basic form of learning which the primary goal is bit it harm the victim but rather attainment of some other goal- for example, access to valued resources
Actions by others that tend to trigger aggression in the recipient, often because they are perceived as stemming from malicious intent
The traits as situational sensitivities model. A view suggesting that many personality traits function in a threshold-like manner, influencing behavior only when situations evoke them
Provoking statements that call attention to the target's flaws and imperfections
type A behavior pattern
A pattern consisting primarily of high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and hostility
type B behavior pattern
A pattern consisting of the absence of characteristics associated with the type A behavior
Any form of behavior through which individuals seek to harm others in their workplace