AP Biology 5 Steps to a 5 Glossary

only the difficult ones
abscisic acid
plant hormone tha inhibits cell growth, prevents premature germination, and stimulates closing of stomata
autosomal dominant form of dwarfism seen in one out of 10,000 people
adaptive radiation
a rapid series of speciation events that occur when one or more ancestral species invades a new enviroment
adrenocorticotropic hormonre (ACTH)
a hormone that stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormones, which work to maintain electrolytic homeostasis in the body
aerobic respiration
energy-producing reactions in animals that involve 3 stages: glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. requries oxygen
agnostic behavior
behavior that results from a conflict of interest between individuals; often involves intimidation and submission
orgainc compound containing a hydroxyl group (-OH)
alcoholic fermentation
occurs in yeast, fungi, and bacteria. pyruvate is converted in two steps to ethanol, regenerating two molecules of NAD+
carbonyl group in which one R is a hydrogen and the other is a carbon chain. hydrophilic and polar
released from the adrenal gland, this hormone acts on the distal tubules to cause the reabsorption of more Na+ and water. this increases blood volume and pressure
transports waste products in mammals to the placenta. later it is incorporated into the umbilical cord
allopatric speciation
interbreeding ceases because some sort of barrier seperates a one population into two (i.e. a mountain). The two populations evolve independently, and if they change enough, then, even if the barrier is removed, they cannot interbreed (i.e. galapagos finches)
alternation of generations
plant life cycle, so named because during the cycle, plants sometimes exist as a diploid organism and at other times as a haploid organism
altruistic behavior
behavior pattern that reduces the overall fitness of one organism while increasing the fitness of another
amino acid
a compound with a carbon center surronded by an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, and an R group that provides an amino acid's unique chemical characteristics
aminoacyl tRNA snythetase
enzyme that makes sure that each tRNA molecule picks up appropriate amino acid for its anticodon
amino group
a functional group that contains -NH2 and that acts as a base; an example is amino acid
structure formed from epiblast that encloses the fluid-filled cavity that helps cushion the developing embryo
the portion of the human brain that controls impulsive emotions and anger
enzyme that breaks down starches in the human diet to simple sugar such as maltose, which are fully digested further down in the intestines
anaerobic respiration
energy-producing reactions, known as fermentation, that do not involve oxygen. it begins with glycolysis and concludes with formation of NAD+
illness in which a lack of iron causes red blood cells to have diminished capacity for delivering oxygen
the condition of having an abnormal amount of chromosomes
flowering plant divided into monocots and dicots
ion with a negative charge that contains more electrons than protons
anterior pituitary gland
structure that produces six hormones: LH, FSH, TSH, STH/HGH, ACTH, and prolactin
pollen producing portion of a plant
male gametangia in bryophytes and ferms designed to produce flagellated sperm that swim to meet up with the eggs made by female gametangia
region present at a tRNA attachment site; a three-nucleotide sequence that is perfectly complementary to a particular codon
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone produced in the brain and stored in the pituitary gland; it increases the permeability of of the collecting duct to water, leading to a more concentrated urine content
a molecule foreign to our bodies and causes oour immune systems to respond
apical meristem
region at the tips of roots and shoots where plant growth is concentrated and many actively dividing cells can be found
apoplast pathway
movement of water and nutrients through the nonliving portion of cells
aposematic coloration
warning coloration adopted by animals that possess a chemical defense mechanism
one of the two major prokaryotic evolutionary branches. these organisms tend to live in extreme enviroments and include halophiles, methanogens, and thermoacidophiles
female gametangia in bryophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms
eukaryotic organism that allegedly most closely resembles prokaryotes
structures that carry blood away from the heart
haploid meiotic products produced by certain fungi
A site
region on protein synthesis machinery that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid (APE)
associative learning
process by which animals take one stimulus and associate it with another
atp synthase
enzyme that uses the flow of hydrogens to drive the phosphorylation of an adenosine diphosphate molecule to produce adenosine triphosphate
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that controls the involuntary actions of the body: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. subdivisions include sympathetic and parasympathetic
autosomal chromosome
one that is not directly involved in determining gender
plant hormone that leads to elongation of stems and plays a role in phototropism and gavitropism
a longer extension that leaves a neuron and carries an impulse away from the cell body towards the target cells
balanced polymorphism
The presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population such as two varieties of perpered moths
bare-rock succession
the attachment of lichen to rocks, followed by step-by-step arrival of replacement species
barr bodies
inactive genes on X chromosomes
batesian mimicry
an animal that is harmless copies the appearence of an animal that is dangerous as defense mechanism to make predators think twice about attacking
substance that contains bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, and bile pigments such as bilirubin, is stored in the gallbladder and is dumped into the small inestine upon the arrival of food
bile salts
help to mechanically digest fat by emulsifying it into small droplets contained in water
mollusks with hinged shells, such as clams
a dramatic reduction in population size that increases the likelihood of genetic drift
tunnels that branch off the trachea that lead into individual lungs and divide into smaller branches called bronchioles
tiny lung tunnels that branch repeatedly until they conclude as tiny air pockets containing aveoli
brush border
large numbers of microvilli that increase the surface area of the small intestine to improve absorption efficiency
the first land plants to evolve from chlorophytes. members include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
bundle sheath cells
cells that are tightly wrapped around the veins of a leaf. this is the site for the calvin cycle in C4 plants
C4 photosynthesis
photosynthetic process that alters the way in which carbon is fixed to better deal with the lack of CO2 that comes from the closing of the stomata in hot, dry regions
C4 plant
plant that has adapted its photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions
calvin cycle
a name for the light-independent (dark) reactions of photosynthesis
CAM photosynthesis
plants that close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until needed during the day for photosynthesis
protein shell that surronds genetic material
carbon fixation
the attachment of the carbon from the Co2 to a molecule that is able to enter the Calvin Cycle, assisted by rubisco
carbonyl group
a functional group that is hydrophilic and polar. it has a central carbon connected to R groups on either side. if both Rs are carbon chains, its a ketone. if one R is hydrogen (H) and the other a carbon chain, then its an aldeHyde
carboxyl group
an acidic functional group (COOH). can be found in amino acids