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Development and Culture - Lec 5
Terms in this set (46)
How are children's development passively shaped?
-Through the genetic information that is passed down to them
-Through the decisions that their parents make for them
How are children's development actively shaped by them?
-Creating entertainment for themselves
What are ways that children can actively learn as they develop?
By making decisions about
-Preferences (favourite people, favourite activities
-Behaviours (response to emotions, response to others, play)
-Values (fairness, etiquette)
What is an issue with the Piagetian theory?
-It undervalues the contribution of other people to a child's cognitive development, and excludes teaching and cultural influences
What does the Piagetian theory suggest?
-That children are the independent constructors of their own development
Are children the only active contributors to their own development?
-Children also develop in conjunction with/ in context of their social surroundings
-These social surroundings provide opportunities for different activities to take place
-In return, we make decisions about how we want to behave in those surroundings
What is culture?
-A socially transmitted or socially constructed constellation consisting of practices, competencies, ideas, schemas, symbols, norms, institutions, goals, constitutive rules, artefacts, and modifications of the physical environment
What is the developmental theory about culture?
-That culture shapes development
What is research question 1 about development and culture?
-To what extent is a person's developmental pathway (learning) influenced by their culture?
What evidence was used to show that a person's developmental pathway (learning) is influenced by their culture?
-Visuo-spatial memory tasks
Which researcher carried out a visuo-spatial memory task test with children from different cultural backgrounds to test whether one's developmental pathways is influenced by their culture?
-Kearins (carried out an ethnographic research)
What 2 groups of children were used in Kearins visuo-spatial memory test?
-Children from indigenous backgrounds (Western Desert)
-Children from European backgrounds (Perth)
88 children in total
How many visuo-spatial memory tests did each child in Kearins study complete?
-4 memory 'games'
-Correct and incorrect pieces were recorded
What methods did Kearins use for the visuo-spatial memory task to reduce class, age and race barriers?
-Called it a 'game' instead of 'test' to make it less formal
-Carried out the test outside as opposed to in a classroom setting to make it less formal
-Kearins avoided excessive eye contact with the participants by looking down at the games, which made it less intimidating for participants
-Kearins sat next to the participants and did the game with them to make them feel more at ease
What 4 ways did each of the visuo-spatial memory tests in Kearin's study differ?
Items in each test were either:
and either 20 items or 12 items were used in each game
What were the artefacts used in Kearin's visuo-spatial memory games?
-Items manufactured within the culture and have a meaning to the person in the culture and ease of recognition
-These should therefore be easier to remember than natural objects
What were the natural items used in Kearin's visuo-spatial memory games?
-Natural items are items that are not used every day and can be difficult to differentiate between
-E.g. different kinds of feathers
-These should therefore be harder to remember
What were the 'different array of objects' used in Kearin's visuo-spatial memory games?
-These were e.g. different types of artefacts or different types of natural items
-Should be easier to remember as each item has a different label/ word to be remembered by e.g. different types of natural items could be feather, leaf, rocks
What were the 'same array of objects' used in Kearin's visuo-spatial memory games?
-These were same TYPES of items
-E.g. bottles, but each bottle was unlabelled and varied in shape, size, colour etc.
-These should be harder to remember, as the language used to remember it is more elaborate as opposed to just a single label e.g. big blue bottle vs. bottle of pepsi
How did Kearin's design the game so that games involving memory of 20 items vs. 12 items were the same levels of difficulty?
-You would expect it to ne harder to remember when there are more items, but this is actually dependent on WHAT items they are
-THe game was designed so that 20 item games were used for easier games (e.g. where the objects are different as opposed to the same) and that 12 item games used harder games (e.g. where objects are the same)
Which group of children outperformed the other group in every version of Kearin's game?
-THe indigenous children outperformed the European children on every version of this game
Were there any significant differences in performance between the indigenous children in Kearin's study?
-No significant differences between indigenous children's performances
-All performed similarly on artefacts and natural items
Were there any significant differences in performance between the European children in Kearin's study?
-Yes, there were significant differences between the performances of European children
-Significant differences in performance were found for games involving different artefacts vs. different natural items
What do the significant differences in performance within European children for games involving different artefacts vs. different natural items suggest about these children?
-That they have a familiarity with cultural products/ artefacts that they don't with natural items
What similarities were found between Indigenous and European children in Kearin's study?
-Both groups of children found natural items harder to remember than artefacts when looking at the same array of items
-This suggests that it's harder to remember when we don't have specific labels for things
-*However, this difference was only significant for the European children. Indigenous children performed similarly on same item tasks regardless of whether artefacts or natural items, showing they have similar familiarity with both items
How did the Indigenous children approach the items in the memory test differently to the European children in Kearin's study?
-Indigenous children = showed careful deliberation and a steady rate of progress. Few changes were made
-European children = made many changes, acted quickly, moved about in their seats, great hesitation
What is a possible reason explaining the approach that the European children took for the memory tasks in Kearin's study?
-Their rushed approach could be the result of them being familiar with the school testing setting
-They have a familiarity with the concept of performance on the task, rather than just doing the task for the tasks sake which could lead to increased pressure
What might the European children's difficulty in remembering same array items be explained by?
-As these children are familiar with gaining new knowledge through formal language activities such as spelling and comprehension, they are more reliant on using verbal labels for things
-This means that it's harder for them to remember items in their own right as a piece and its location on the board (a more visuo-spatial approach), as they're more accustomed to a language/ mnemonic approach
What can the different approaches taken by the Indigenous children and the European children on the memory tasks of Kearin's study suggest?
-Different cultural experiences can lead to different approaches to tasks
What type of approach was most commonly used by the Indigenous children to remember items in Kearin's memory tests?
-Indigenous children tended to take a more visuo-spatial approach as opposed to a language/ mnemonic strategy
-Pieces are remembered in their own right as a piece and its location on the board
-The specific environmental experience of the Indigenous children facilitated the acquisition of perceptual and visual memory skills, and maintained their predominance over the verbal coding skills demanded by European society and the school system
What are some of the limitations of Kearin's study?
-Not systematic: Kearin's tried to make the research so casual that there was a lot of room for variation in the way that e.g. tasks were delivered, the way she took notes etc.
-However, in saying this, in trying to be casual Kearins developed a culturally sensitive approach that removes some of those barriers
What does Kearin's study ultimately conclude?
-That there are differences in the way that people engage in visuo-spatial tasks, which can be explained and understood in terms of their upbringings
What is research question 2 about development and culture?
-To what extent is a person's developmental pathway (decision-making) influenced by culture?
What evidence was used to show that a person's developmental pathway (decision-making) is influenced by their culture?
-Problem solving tasks where cultural ideas from folk lores were used to find solutions to these tasks
Where do cultural ideas come from, and how might these ideas be used by children when coming across new things?
-Cultural ideas are created from e.g. fairy tales, in ways that align with the culture's values
-E.g. heroes do things that the culture sees as valuable, while the villain demonstrates things that are not of value to the culture
-Therefore, when a child comes across new things, they draw upon the types of stories and messages learnt from their own culture in order to solve them
What are analogous sources?
-Analogies that set up problems which young people might face in the future, and shows them solutions they can use
-These are cultural ideas e.g. folk lores, fairy tales
What are insight problems?
-Insight problems draw upon analogous sources to find solutions
-These are novel experiences e.g. moral dilemmas, adaptive tasks, unfamiliar decisions
In a study testing whether cultural folk tales influences the way that young people solve novel problems, what different cultural backgrounds did the students in the study come from?
How many insight problems were given to the participants?
6 insight problems, with varying levels of complexity
-2 target problems + 4 control problems
What were the 2 target problems used?
-The 'statue' problem
-The 'cave' problem
What were the 4 control problems used?
-Problems where there was no known relevant analogous source from either culture that the participants could refer to
What did the results show about how cultural influence of ideas/ fairytales influences problem solving?
-That things from our cultural past will influence the way that we solve things
What was found for the Chinese students who were reminded of the specific Chinese heritage fairytale that related to the specific problem solving question vs. those who weren't reminded?
-90% of those who were reminded of the Chinese heritage fairytale, solved the problem well
-Around 35% of those who weren't reminded of the story, solved the problem in a less fulfilling way
What is the conclusion of the study regarding problem-solving through use of analogical sources?
-That substantial transfer of culture-specific analogical sources was found when American and Chinese participants' performance was compared to the types of problems solved in European vs. Chinese folk tales
What are some of the limitations of the problem-solving using analogical sources study?
-Cross-ethnic experiences of some participants may have influenced results
-Culture was treated more as ethnicity --> culture isn't just related to one's ethnicity. It can be organisational culture, family culture etc.
-Insight problems must be novel --> can't have heard of these problems before and already know the recommended solutions. There was no way to ensure that participants hadn't heard these problems before
What are some of the strengths of the problem-solving using analogical sources study?
-Provides a good approach to measuring cultural 'ideas' (through fairytales) and showing just how much impact they have on our development
-Provides an approach for measuring decision-making (through the types of problems used)
Sets found in the same folder
Introduction to Developmental Psychology - Lec 1
Developmental Perspective of Wellbeing - Lec 2
A Developmental Perspective of Intelligence - Lec 3
Issues Measuring Intelligence - Lec 4
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