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OBESIDY AND CV/METABOLIC DISEASE
Terms in this set (72)
Obesity Increases risk for :
Type 2 diabetes
Controlling obsity can dramatically reduce Medical Costs
________ weight loss reduces medical treatment costs
6% - 10%
includes numerous problems, related to the heart and blood vessels.
Heart disease (heart and blood vessel disease)
hardening of arteries/ build up of plaque on walls of arteries due to excess fat, cholesterol , etc
caused by atherosclerosis of the arteries to the heart
coronary heart disease
which is when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off
which is when the pumping action of the heart is impaired
_____________ causes problems with the blood supply to your legs and arms
peripheral artery disease
Examples of CVD:
Coronary artery disease
Peripheral artery disease
Classic Risk Factors in CVD are:
Obesity and Lack of exercise
Fat is stored in what type of cell
Large Fat cells generate many molecules that can cause ____________.
Chronic Low Grade ___________ can cause __________ overtime
inflammation. inflamation damage
Why is obesity a risk for CVD?
Because large fat cells produce molecules that can cause inflammation over time.
(small protein released from cells like macrophages that allow communication between cells)
Example of a cytokine
_________ is increasingly being recognized as a source of inflammatory cytokines.
As one gains weight, large fat cells produce.............
inflammation producing proteins called cytokines
inflammatory cytokine- part of immune function but high in obesity- high levels can lead to insulin resistance
Large fat cells also release ______ into ______, which spurs ___________ .
fatty acids; blood; inflammatory response
Macrophages, associated with obesity, can:
infiltrate the fat cells and send out pro inflammatory signal which also lead to insulin resistance.
pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation.
IL-6 and IL-1
: pro-inflammatory cytokines whose family can cause cell death
a protein found in the blood that increases in response to inflammation
One of the strongest makers of chronic inflammation is a protein called
Patients with elevated basal levels of CRP are at an increased risk of
diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease
Leptin is secreted by _________-
Leptin is secreted by fat cells
What hormone may elevate blood pressure and has effects on the cells of the artery wall?
Protein hormone that is secreted by fat cells and is reduced in obese subjects
Adiponectin increases _____ _______ of cells
glucose uptake; cells
Adiponectin takes part in ________ of __________
Adiponectin takes part in B-Oxidation, or :
the break down of fatty acid molecules
Adiponectin takes part in protection from:
endothelial dysfunction (important part of atherosclerotic formation)
Adiponectin increases :
weight loss by increases basal metabolism
Fat forms on men where:
intrabdominal or Visceral Type
Fat forms on women where?
Lower Body or external type
Fat formed on wemon is often named as:
pear shaped or gynoid
Fat formed on men is often named as:
android or apple shapped
Men have _______ adipocytes that are __________ _____________
large insulin resistant
Women have ________ adipocytes that are ___________
SMall; Insulin sensitive
How to manage CVD or prevent it with Weight loss?
Modest weight loss of 5 pounds
Modest weight loss of 5 pounds will :
reduce: CVD risk; Stroke rate. Improves serum lipids
Diet option for total fat to reduce CVD is : percent%
20-35% of total calories from fat
Diet option for reducing CVD in Saturated fats:
Limit saturated fats to < 7% total calories
Diet option for reducing CVD in trans fat:
Keep the number low
Diet option for reducing CVD of Poly unsaturated fats include:
Polyunsaturated fats <10% total calories
Diet option for reducing CVD of Monounsaturated fats include:
Monounsaturated fats <20% total calories
Diet option for reducing CVD for Cholesterol include:
Cholesterol <200mg dily
To reduce CVD risk, one can add _____________ to their diets
20-30 g of soluble fiber
To reduce CVd risk, one can eat _________ _______ for twice a week
fatty fish/ omega 3
To reduce CVD risk one can eat___________
To manage CVD, one can do _________ of ___________
30 min of moderate exercise
Increasing ________ cholesterol level will ___________ risk for CVD.
HDL cholesterol ; lower
Does exercise benefit all patients with obesity?
Yes. Body composition (Lean, Moderate, Obese) doesn't matter in terms of Relative risk to CVD.
What is a good marker for CVD fatalities?
Risk factors for metabolic syndrome areL
High abdominal obesity
High fasting Glucose
Abdominal obesity for men include is measured waist as: (measurement)
>102 cm (>40 in)
Abdominal obesity for women include: measurement
>88cm (>35 in)
High triglycerides is defined as :
Low HDL-C for men is defined as:
Low HDL-C for women is defined as:
High Blood Pressure is defined as:
High Fasting Glucose is defined as:
Preventative Goals for metabolic syndrome
Prevent predictable complications like type 2 diabetes, cardio vascular events.
What are treatments for metabolic syndrome?
Weight loss, exercise, proper diet
What are statins?
Class of drug that lowers cholesterol
Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between body weight and blood pressure—-_____________in men and__________ in women are associated with excess adiposity
70% of hypertension; 60%
<120 and <80
Life style modification to lower blood BP include:
DASH eating plan
Aerobic physical activity
Limit alcohol conumption
Clinical Trail of effects of dietary patterns on bp
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