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Evolutionary Psychology Exam 3
Terms in this set (105)
The Israeli Kibbutz failed because______.
Women demanded to raise their own children
If Mexican free-tailed bats fed the infants for the good of the species, then they ________.
Would feed their own young just as often as the offspring of their peers
Tinbergen experimented with nesting birds and found that their laborious efforts in removing broken eggshells from their nests functioned to ________.
Make the nest less attractive to predators who might prey on their young chicks
Paternity uncertainty implies
That there is always some probability that another male has fertilized the female's egg(s)
Paternity uncertainty makes it ________ for males, compared to females, to invest in offspring
The mating opportunity cost hypothesis states that _________.
The costs of missed mating opportunities as a result of investment in offspring are greater for males than for females
When the sex ratio is high (surplus of men), men are ________ their children than when there is a surplus of women
More investing in
Men who are more attractive
Reduce their parental effort
Evolved mechanisms of parental care should be sensitive to all of the following EXCEPT:
Likelihood that the offspring are full siblings
Finn found that stepfathers' interactions with stepchildren were _________ and _______ than genetic fathers' interactions with their children
Less frequent; more aggressive
Which of the following sources of information is most relevant for men's assessments of their relatedness to offspring?
Information about a partner's sexual fidelity during the period that she conceived
Daly and Wilson found that the mother's remarks about a baby's resemblance to the father were _______ as frequent as her remarks about the baby's resemblance to her
The ________ showed a particular bias for asserting a resemblance between the father and the baby
When viewing infants faces that had been morphed together with their own face, __________ indicated _________.
Men; they would be least resentful paying child support to that child
fMRI studies have revealed that _________'s brain show increased activation of the brain regions linked to ________ when viewing children's faces that resemble their own
Men; inhibiting negative responses
Men who rate their wives high on trustworthiness tend to _________.
Invest more in their children.
Burch and Gallup found that men who rated their children as _________ inflicted _________.
Not looking like them; more severe physical injuries on their partners
Anderson, Kaplan and Lancaster found that genetic offspring were _________ than stepchildren to receive parental funding for college
5.5 times more likely
Daly and Wilson found that children living with one genetic parent and one step-parent were about _________ times more likely to be physically abused
The primary caretaker hypothesis states that _________.
Women have adaptions that increase the chances of their children's survival
What hypothesis predicts that women will be better than men at decoding all facial expressions of emotion?
Attachment promotion hypothesis
What hypothesis predicts that women possess adaptations which allow them to protect children from danger as well as maintain social ties that can provide protection?
Discriminative parental solicitude describes _________.
A suite of parental mechanisms designed to channel investment towards children better able to convert investment into reproductive success
In one twin study, by 8 months after giving birth, every single mother had directed more positive maternal behavior toward __________.
The healthier twin
The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts that __________.
Parents will invest more in sons when the parents are in good condition
Aka men of higher status devote ________ effort holding their infants that do men of lower status
Less than half of the
Parent-offspring hypothesis was proposed by
Parent-offspring conflict theory identified the important arena of ________.
Conflict between parents and child due to their sharing fewer genes with each other than they do with themselves
In a study of adolescents, researchers found that suicide attempts ________.
May be strategies for extracting investment from parents
Aka fathers hold their children more than fathers in any other cultures, but _______.
They hold their children significantly less than Aka mothers
Parent-offspring conflict predicts _________.
Selection will favor adaptations in children to manipulate parents toward children's optimum level of investment
Production of human chorionic gonadotropic is an adaptation in fetuses designed to ________.
Extract higher levels of nutrition from the mother and cause preeclampsia
The problem of altruism _________.
Describes problems associated with how altruism among non-relatives could evolve given the selfish designs that aid in reproduction of non-relatives at a cost to the altruist
Social Exchange is ______.
A form of cooperation
The theory of reciprocal altruism ________.
Defines the conditions under which mechanisms favoring altruism can evolve. States that psychological mechanisms for providing benefits to non-relatives can evolve as long as the delivery of such benefits is reciprocated at some point in the future
A "gain in trade" is ________.
The scenario in which each party receives more in the future returns than it costs to deliver the benefit
One of the most important adaptive problems for the altruist is _________.
Ensuring that benefits bestowed will be returned in the future
The _________ is a hypothetical situation in which 2 people are forced to weigh the costs and benefits of cooperation, temptations to defect and punishment for mutual defection.
If the Prisoner's Dilemma game is played only once, the best choice of action for a given player would be to
Axelrod and Hamilton found that the best strategy in the Prisoner's Dilemma was _______.
The simplest strategy devised
In which ways is the Prisoner's Dilemma artificial compared to everyday life?
Partners possess equal power to punish and reward; partners cannot communicate with one another
The tit for tat strategy involves ________.
Cooperating on the first move, then reciprocating a partner's move for each move thereafter.
What is not a means of promoting cooperation, as identified by Axelrod?
Insist on more than equity
Wilkinson discovered that vampire bats ________ regurgitate a portion of the blood they haver sucked for ingestion by others.
De Waal found that male chimpanzees often benefit from social alliances by _______.
Being granted sexual access to females
Who developed the social contract theory?
Cosmides and Tooby
Social contract theory _______.
Was developed to explain cooperative exchange in humans with an emphasis on how humans have solved the adaptive problem of cheater detection.
The only way reciprocal altruism can evolve is if _______.
Organisms have mechanisms to detect and avoid cheaters
What is not a cognitive capacity that must have evolved to motivate forming social contracts and avoiding threat of cheaters?
The ability to remember all aspects of the histories of interactions with different individuals
Over evolutionary time, _______ will reproduce more than _________.
Opportunistic cheaters; exclusive cooperators
The Wason selection task and modifications of it suggest that humans are good at _______ but poor at _______.
Detecting cheaters in social exchange, abstract problems
Brown proposed that humans have adaptations that allows them to _______.
Assess the genuineness of an altruistic act
The social-exchange heuristic refers to_ ______.
A cognitive adaptation designed to bias us toward not exploiting a partner who is cooperating
Costly signaling refers to _______.
Altruism that is costly to the provider and thereby yields honest signals to others regarding one's quality as a coalitional ally.
The banker's paradox is a term that implies that ______.
Those who need money the most are least likely to receive money and those that need it the least are most likely to receive it.
What is not a strategy for increasing the odds of becoming irreplaceable, as discussed by Tooby and Cosmides?
Seek out groups that reciprocate the attributes you offer
Tooby and Cosmides are that selection should fashion assessment mechanisms that make differentiations between
Fair-weather friends and true friends
Friendship niches refer to
The adaptive problem of deciding who will fill limited friendship slots
Bleske and Buss found that ________ evaluated the potential for sexual access to their opposite-sex friends as _______ beneficial
Cooperative coalitions are
Alliances of more than 2 individuals for the purpose of collective action to achieve a particular goal
Price found that
The best predictor of punitive sentiments was the degree of a person's own participation in a cooperative coalition
Among the Shuar in Ecuador, punishment is especially harsh toward in-group members who ________ - even more than toward out-group members
Did not cooperate when they could
What has been demonstrated about punitive sentiments?
Observing an unfair game player receiving physical pain activates the brain's reward centers
What is the hypothesized process by which transmitted ideas, beliefs and values spread because of the competitive advantages they provide to groups holding them?
Cultural group selection
In order for cooperation coalitions to emerge, individuals must be able to solve all of the following adaptive problems except:
Detecting altruistic members
Memory for cheaters may be heightened because
Of their rarity in the population
What is NOT true of our cognitive mechanisms related to cheater detection?
People show heightened memory for cheaters, but their does not result in behavioral changes during economic games
Studies have documented that their participants pay more attention to, and better remember, faces of people who actually cheated in the past - even when the participant is unaware of whether the target individual cheated or not. This implies that
People who cheat look different than people who cooperate
What has been identified as a potential facial cue to altruistic individual?
Indirect reciprocity theory explains our tendency to behave altruistically
When the target of our altruism cannot reciprocate
According to costly signaling theory, how does context affect our altruistic tendencies?
When behaving altruistically anonymously, we are more likely to choose a low-cost option
According to the alliance hypothesis, what would be the most valuable friend?
An individual who highly values you as a friend
What has been hypothesize to underlie the differences documented between how men and woman approach same-sex friendships?
Women's tendency to mate exogamously
Men's same sex friendships appear to be designed to be more ______ than women's
The mere presence of _______ is sufficient to increase the punishment of non-cooperators.
When animals live in groups where they encounter each other repeatedly.....
Genes for returning favors can survive
Has been hardwired into us
Animals who give something or helping others is called
According to Dawkins, genes, but not a person's body or soul, that are successfully copied from one generation to the next can be ______?
The narrator referred to living things as _______, which is why they are alive today
How do genetics affect altruism in organisms?
Altruism contributes to the extinction of species
What did Dawkins imply by the term, "selfish gene?"
A gene that does not look after its own interests will not survive
What reasons does Dawkins give as a possible explanation to modern day empathetic/altruistic behaviors in humans?
Misfiring selfish genes cause us to live by our own personal values instead of totally relying on our nature
There are good genetic reasons for ______.
Limited acts of kindness
The meaning of the phrase "selfish gene" is
Genes don't look after their own interests will not surive
Veneer theory claims that
Humans are inherently bad and polite behavior is just a thin veneer to mask that
The idea that any niceness displayed by humans is only a thin covering for darker nature is called
In Hamilton's rule, what does B stand for?
Reproductive benefit gained from the altruistic act
In Belding's squirrels, the alarm caller is usually _______.
An older female
Kin based altruistic acts are compatible with Dawkin's selfish gene theory
The prisoner's dilemma....
Can be applied to animal behavior in terms of reciprocal altruism
In the prisoner's dilemma, the Nash equilibrium is represented by
Each prisoner telling on the other
The study of animal behavior with emphasis on behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments
Haidt pointed out that when people share morals they become what?
What was not included in the first draft of the moral mind?
Liberals are known to have how many channels of morality?
Political conservatives are known to have how many channels of morality?
According to Haidt, the 5 foundations of morality are:
Harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group loyalty, authority/respect, purity/sanctity
Haidt contends that the chief source of disagreement between liberals and conservatives is....
According to de Waal, the "pillars of morality" are
Reciprocity (fairness) and empathy (compassion)
de Waal's experiment with Capuchin monkeys demonstrated that some animals behave as if they understand the concept of
Are activated when we observe someone experiencing something as if we are experiencing it ourself
Humans are soft wired for
Sociability, attachment, affection, and companionship
What is a psychological function of Theological Consciousness?
Empathize with people of the same religion establishing social ties with them
What is the relationship between selfhood and empathetic development?
As selfhood increases, empathetic development also increases
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