an international Private Association of the Faithful, open both to men and women, dedicated to praying for a renewal of Christendom.
groups of people who inflicted physical harm on themselves as penance for society's sins, believing that the plague was God's punishment.
an intermediate state between heaven and hell where souls are made fit for paradise or heaven by expiatory suffering.
sentence to death where you are nailed to a cross hanging on a wall, and are left to die by thirst or starvation
The Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Innocent III created most powerful papacy in medieval history. Innocent belief "one true church, a repository of spiritual truth". Innocent wanted the papacy to control both affairs of the church and of the state. The Council ruled that: every person must make annual confession to a priest & take communion, doctrine of transubstantiation official doctrine, excommunication dangerous to the soul, declared that Jews required to wear special badges, in time lead to Jewish Ghettos
a vessel (usually of gold or silver) in which the consecrated Host is exposed for adoration
an object considered holy because it belonged to, or was touched by, a saint or other holy person
a paid release from all or part of punishment for sin by the catholic church, reducing time in purgatory after death
Popes of this place were French, and abused their power in such a way that they had great financial success, but lost political power. Because they were solely French, they had less influence outside of France. Germany and Italy openly defied this papacy. The Popes turned inwards, and managed to secure all the legal and financial success of the church for the Pope himself. They made money from sales of indulgences and church offices.
Marsiglio of Padua (ca. 1275 - 1342)
the publisher of Defensor Pacis. He argued that the state was the great unifying power in society and that the church was subordinate to the state. He put for the idea that the church had no jurisdiction and should have no property. He was excommunicated because of these ideas.
The Schism (1378 - 1417)
the splinter group of cardinals gathered again & elected a new pope - Clement the VII (Avignon) = 2 individuals elected pope by the same cardinals (save one), Pope Clement took up arms against Pope Urban VI's and attacked Rome; Clement had to flee to Avignon so there was now one pope in Rome and one in Avignon each with his own cardinals - 40 yrs.
some Cardinals tried to work together to end the Great Schism. They wanted to end the chaos, as everyone was exasperated with the popes. A problem-solving council of cardinals was opposed by both popes, because it would show that God's authority did not rest solely in the pope's hands.
The Council of Constance (1414-1417)
The 15th ecumenical council that is recognized by the Roman Catholic Church held from 1413-1417. The council ended the great schism and new pope was elected, Pope Martin V. papacy was reunited.
Pope Martin V (1368 - 1431)
Elected Pope in 1417. his election brought the end to the Great Schism, by him the conflict within the Church of who was actually the Pope was now over.
Pope Pius II (1458 - 1464)
This Pope issued Execrabilis stating the council was Heretical -- Popes had supremacy over Catholic church, not a council
a papal bill issued by Pope Pius II, condemning appeals to a council over the head of a pope as heretical.
John Wycliffe (ca. 1330 - 1384)
This English reformer was at Oxford University where he translated the Bible into Anglo-Saxon, and spread new, radical teachings such as that Jesus is the head of the church, clergy should not be wealthy landowners, and the Bible is the final authority for Christian life.
John Hüss (ca. 1372 - 1415)
followers called Hussites, critic of the 7 sacraments, found guilty of Heresy and burned at the stake
a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or alleged, in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen.
Pope Alexander VI (1431 - 1503)
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Pope Julius II (1443 - 1513)
The "Warrior-Pope"; most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter's Basilica.
A town in eastern Germany on the Elbe River northeast of Leipzig. It was the scene in 1517 of Martin Luther's campaign against the Roman Catholic Church that was a major factor in the rise of the Reformation
Frederick the Wise
The elector(duke) of Saxony, Chose to protect Luther to prove that he had full rein over his lands, not Charles V.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Menno Simons (1496 - 1561)
one of the greatest figures of the dutch reformation. Started out following Martin Luther, then switched to Zwingli, and eventually turned to anabaptism. Best known work was "The foundation of Christian Doctrine" written in 1539. Characteristic beliefs: humility, faithful practice as christ would have lived, simplicity, denouncing violence, and orderliness and discipline
Jacob Hutter (d. 1536)
Anabaptist leader in Moravia who embraced pacifism and the practice of Christian communalism
An Anabaptist group, was founded by Jacob Hutter in central Europe in the mid 1500s.The community is considered to be more important than the family. They believe that salvation is found in total submission to the group, which is more important than the individual. Marriage transpires at the beginning of a woman's fertility. Birth control is considered murder even if it was medically recommended. Hutterites believe that the aged are to be respected and deserve the best.
John Calvin (1509 - 1564)
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibly of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Michael Servetus (ca. 1511 - 1553)
a Spaniard who was among the chief thinkers for the Anti-Trinitarians. He was executed in 1553 in Geneva for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." This thinker was among the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination and has a deserved reputation of defending religious tolerance.
King Francis I (1494 - 1547)
governed through a small, efficient council. Issued an ordinance that placed France under the jurisdiction of royal courts, French language frivolous with spending
King Henry II (1519 - 1559)
increased number of criminal cases tried in the Kings court and devised means for taking property cases from local courts to royal ones. expanded kings power. developed common law. claimed right to punish clergy. had Thomas a Becket assassinated because of his opposition
The Wars of Religion (1562 - 1598)
France: French Civil War 1559-1589. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572. Henry the II assassinated 1589.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572)
a savage Catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris on August 24, 1572 where Huguenots were slaughtered. Led to fighting called War of 3 Henries. (Catholic- Henry of Guise, Protestant- Henry of Navarre and Henry III)
Henry III (1574 - 1589)
The last Valois king of France; assassinated by crazed monk during the War of the Three Henries; ruled France 1574-1589.
King Henry IV (1553 - 1610)
from Germany; conflict with Pope Gregory VII - lay investiture; believed rulers had right to appoint high-ranking clerics, especially bishops, as their vassals
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
a declaration in which the french king Henry IV promised that protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
called for Church Reforms; heavily influenced by the earlier writing of John Wycliffe; these writings illustrated disgust against the Catholic Church and called for religious writers to use the vernacular
1467 - 1519
In charge of St. Peter's Cathedral in England
Promoted religious reform
Patronized Christian studies
used scripture to live his life
Pope Innocent III
pope from 1198 to 1216 and led the papacy to its height in power...he was a skilled diplomat and a great political leader...he believed that emperors and kings were servant of the church.. he dominated almost all of Europe
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
The Ninety-Five Theses
attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation
Pope Leo X Medici
Pope from 1513 to his death. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. He is known primarily for the sale of indulgences to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 theses.
An Italian cardinal who opposed Luther and his Reformation. He helped in drawing up Luther's bull of excommunication, and was entrusted with great positions in Rome.
happened in July of 1519. after the 95 theses Luther was challenged by John Eck to come and debate and discuss the doctrine of indulgences. But Eck turned it into a question of the authority of the church.
papal bull issued on June 15, 1520 by Pope Leo X in response to the teachings of Martin Luther in his 95 theses and subsequent writings which opposed the views of the papacy.
Diet of Wörms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Luther's place of hiding. In 1521 and 1522 while in the castle he translates the new testament into German.
Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560)
friend of Martin Luther, he wrote the Confessions of Augsburg, an attempt to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes that failed. The statements made did become the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church.
Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1480-1541)
Luther's nominal superior in the theology faculty at Wittenberg; an impetuous reformer whom Luther later broke with because of his radical measures. Believes that justification is a gift of grace from God. Also believes that grace is given to those who have faith. Believes that humans must be active - they must purify themselves to make room for grace. Has three big reforms - Clerical Marriage, New Mass, and Destroying Images.
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
Thomas Müntzer (1489-1525)
A radical German Anabaptist who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26. Luther despised him for his politicization of the Reformation, and they disagreed over several religious doctrines.
Ulrich Zwingli (1484 - 1531)
This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
Thomas Wolsey (1474 - 1530)
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
William Tyndale (1494 - 1526)
This Protestant man was a Humanist who helped translate the Bible so that all people could read it in their own religion. He translated the New Testament, but was executed before he could finish the Old Testament because he was not supported by the English government in his translating in the early 16th century.
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
Thomas More (1478 - 1535)
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
Thomas Cromwell (1485 - 1540)
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
The Act of Supremacy (1534)
Henry IIV splitting form the catholic church declaring himself head of the church of england
She was Henry the 8th's third wife and she married him 10 days after Anne Boleyn was beheaded. She was the mother of Edward the 6th, Henry's only male heir which was Edward.
Anne of Cleves
King Henry VIII's forth wife, was an arranged marriage for political reasons (she was a German princess) and was divorced for her deeply disappointing physical appearance as soon as he saw her.
King Henry VIII's fifth wife, more attractive but less moral than his forth wife, beheaded when she committed adultery.
King Henry VIII's sixth wife. she married Henry out of duty for her country, she was a good friend to Henry and his children
Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army
The Book of Common Prayer
Contains scripture readings, prayers, and other aids for congregational and personal workship
Lady Jane Grey (1537 - 1554)
Became Queen at age 16. Was the sucessor of Edward the 6th. Ruled 9 days before being beheaded by Mary the 1st. Called the "Nine Day Queen". She was chosen because Edward wanted an Anglican heir.
Queen Mary Tudor (1553 -1558)
Henry VIII's daughter who took the throne upon Edward VI's death. Briefly brought England back under Catholic rule. Did so largely by force. Executed 273 Protestants, including Thomas Cranmer. Known as "Bloody Mary".
Elizabeth I's spy who uncovered a plot to overthrow her that involved the former Queen of Scotland
The Thirty Nine Articles (1563 and 1571)
established in 1563 and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the English Reformation; especially in the relation of Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practices to the nascent Anglican doctrine of the evolving English Church.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
Pope Boniface VIII (1235 - 1303)
the Pope prohibited the taxation of clergy by the civil leader. In 1302, he issued the famous bull, Unam Sanctam. The French king retorted by sending soldiers to arrest Boniface, who soon died.
King Phillip IV
French king who, after disputing with Pope Boniface VIII over taxing the clergy, kidnapped the Pope in 1302. Moved the Papacy to Avignon.
The "Babylonian Captivity of the Church" (1309 - 1378)
the second of the three major treatises published by Martin Luther in 1520. It was a theological treatise, and as such was published in Latin as well as German, the language in which the treatises were written.
Pope Urban VI (1378 - 1389)
When elected, there was a public decree that he was canonically and freely elected, despite pressure from Roman mobs. He went on a rampage to clean up the papal court, and even beat people with his papal staff. It was later decreed that his election was uncanonical.
Pope Clement VII (1378 - 1394)
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.
famous decree which gave primacy to the authority of the Council and thus became a source for ecclesiastic conciliarism
The Zwickau Prophets
three men from Zwickau of the Radical Reformation who were possibly involved in a disturbance in nearby Wittenberg and its reformation in early 1522.
eight sermons preached by Luther for the eight days of lent in 1522. In these sermons, he hammered home the primacy of core Christian values such as love, patience, charity, and freedom, and reminded the citizens to trust God's word rather than violence to bring about necessary change.
Albrecht of Mainz
was Elector and Archbishop of Mainz from 1514 to 1545, and Archbishop of Magdeburg from 1513 to 1545.
Prince's Sermon (1524)
a sermon apparently delivered by Thomas Müntzer on 13 July 1524, allegedly given to Duke John of Saxony and his advisors in Allstedt, though the circumstances surrounding this event are unclear. The sermon focuses on Daniel 2, a chapter in which Daniel, hostage in Babylon, becomes an adviser to the king because of his ability to interpret dreams. In the sermon, Müntzer presents himself as a new Daniel to interpret the dreams of the princes to them. He interpreted Daniel 2:44 as speaking of the kingdom of God that would consume all earthly kingdoms.
Emperor Charles V
the emperor that declared Martin Luther an outlaw of Germany and refused to protect him - issued the edict of worms.
The Peasants' War of 1524-1526
a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe.
Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants (1525
part of the peasants' demands raised towards the Swabian League in the German Peasants' War in Germany of 1525.
First Zürich Disputation (1523)
meeting in Zurich that would render a decision if Zwingli would be allowed to continue to proclaim his views
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540
Some substance is changing while the bread and the wine maintain their physically properties, their essence is changing.
The Marburg Colloquy (1529)
The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting at Marburg Castle, Marburg, Hesse, Germany which attempted to solve a dispute between Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli over the Real Presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
Set of beliefs about the relationship between the believer and the church. There are two churches - the first being the wordily church which is subject to the higher power/society and doesn't always necessarily follow the rules. Then there is the true church which is your morals within the worldly church.
Second Zürich Disputation (1523)
public meeting by Zwingli that called for the removal of statues of saints and other icons.
true church and worldly church
There are two churches - the first being the wordily church which is subject to the higher power/society and doesn't always necessarily follow the rules. Then there is the true church which is your morals within the worldly church.
A radical German Anabaptist who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26. Luther despised him for his politicization of the Reformation, and they disagreed over several religious doctrines. He believes in the scripture, sacraments, prophecies, signs and portens He emphasizes the action of the holy spirit, suffering, and apocalypticism. He lead a peasant rebellion and concentrates on the city of Frankenhousen.
Melchior Hoffman (1495 - 1543)
He was the leader of the anabaptist movement in the low countries in June 1530, he spent several months organizing a community. He is a prophet who believes that the apocalypse is coming. In this prophecy he says that the Kingdom of God is coming in 1532 and that the anabaptists are destined to play the role of divine castigators of sin and that Strasbourg is destined to be the New Jerusalem.
The Affair of the Placards (1534)
n incident in which anti-Catholic posters appeared in public places in Paris and in four major provincial cities: Blois, Rouen, Tours and Orléans, overnight during 17 October 1534. they brought an end to the conciliatory policies of Francis, who had formerly attempted to protect the Protestants from the more extreme measures of the Parlement de Paris, and also of the public entreaties for moderation of Philip Melanchthon.
Jan of Leiden
This radical reformer was attracted to the preaching of Bernard Rothmann in Münster as well as Jan Matthijs. After Matthijs was killed, Jan of Leiden declared himself the new king David of Münster. He also instituted polygamy in the town while it was under seige from Catholics and Lutherans. On June 25, 1535 Münster was captured and Jan was interrogated and imprisoned for months. On January 22, 1536 he was publicly tortured and killed and his body was placed in a cage atop St. Lambert's Church.
Queen Catherine de' Medici
daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand that eventually because the first wife of Henry VIII. She was divorced from him because she could not produce a legitimate heir for Henry
The House of Guise
he House of Guise was a French ducal family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.
King Francis II (1559 - 1560)
-r.1559 - 1560
-controlled by Duke of Guise
-ruled at the young age of 15
-many wanted to influence him
-his regent was Catherine
King Charles IX (1560 - 1574)
-r. 1560 - 1574
-only 10 years old when reign began
-Catherine was his regent b//c he was so young
-Duke of Coligny was his closest adviser
-he was (falsely) convinced later (by Catherine) that the duke of Coligny was trying to take over
Thomas Wolsey (1474 - 1530)
an English political figure and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became king of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner.
King Henry VIII Tudor (1491 - 1547)
was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) and claimant to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (1521)
The Defence of the Seven Sacraments is a book, written by King Henry VIII of England in 1521.
Queen Catherine of Aragon
also known as Katherine or Katharine, was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII of England and Princess of Wales as the wife to Arthur, Prince of Wales.
King Edward VI Tudor
became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first ruler who was raised as a Protestant.
Edward Duke Seymour of Somerset
was Lord Protector of England in the period between the death of Henry VIII in 1547 and his own indictment in 1549.
Cardinal Reginald Pole
was an English Cardinal of the Catholic Church, and the last Archbishop of Canterbury in communion with the Pope, holding the office during the Counter Reformation.
Queen Mary Stuart (1542 - 1587)
was Queen regnant of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. In some lists of Scottish monarchs, she is recognized as Mary I.
Total Depravity: we are born spiritually dead, spiritually passive, enslaved to sin
Unconditional Election: God chooses whom to awaken to faith, a choice outside of time, in which we have no part - it doesn't depend on us
Limited Atonement: Christ's sacrifice is infinite in power but not infinite
Irresistible Grace: The inward call cannot be cooperated with and cannot be resisted. The Word in the world can be resisted, but not the inward call
Perseverance of the Saints: the Elect may fall away from faith, and will continue to sin, but their election cannot be taken away - they will persevere until the end
Lawyerly Church of Ordinances of 1541
Pastors: elect new pastors; required to critique one another every 3 months; meet on weekly basis for scriptural discussion; preach and perform ritual
Doctors: chosen by the pastors and approved by the city's small council; instruct the city's youth in the basic tenets of doctrine
Deacons: chosen by the city's small council from the city's councils; look after the well being of the city's inhabitants
Elders: chosen by the city's small council from the city's council; watch over the life of each individual