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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
American History FINAL
Terms in this set (76)
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Tariff of Abominations
raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated the state's rights.
War Against the Bank
Pet banks → jackson understood the political dynamics of the banks, so he tries to really end it. He pulls out federal money deposited in national bank. He puts them in "pet banks" (state and local banks) controlled by allies and supporters of jackson
He succeeds in killing the national bank
John c. Calhoun and SC Exposition and protest
South Carolina protest in 1828 that argued that states had the right to declare a federal law null, or not valid. Calhoun theorized that the states had this right since they had created the federal Union.
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
-Promised to gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by 10% over a period of eight years.
-proposed resolution to the nullification crisis
favored the idea of a weak president and a strong Congress
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
John Marshall and Native American policy
4th chief justice
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
hostility toward anything deemed foreign
-a secret society
-It was primarily anti-Catholic, xenophobic, and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society.
-Native american party
Battle of San Jacinto
the war secured Texas independence from Mexico
William Henry Harrison
- American military officer
- 9th president of the US
- a principal contributor in the war of 1812
- represented the Whig party
- the first VP to become President
Annexation of Texas
- proposed by John C Calhoun
- seeking to expand Texas and being separated from Mexico
James K Polk
-in charge of annexation of Texas
-11th President of the United States
Origins of Mexican War
U.S. and Mexican troops fought against one another in the Mexican-American War. Ultimately, it was a battle for land where Mexico was fighting to keep what they thought was their property and the U.S. desired to retain the disputed land of Texas and obtain more of Mexico's northern lands.
leading general and very well known -was elected as the 12th president of the United States in 1849 -national hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War
- the next leading general
- utilities Taylor's soldiers and defeats Mexican forces
- He was the foremost American military figure between the Revolution and the Civil War.
-American army officer who held the rank of general in three wars
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
forces Mexico to split 2/3 of its nation
slavery permanently banned in the land in the territory acquired from Mexico
Compromise of 1850
includes 5 separate bills with slavery friendly laws
-A set of laws, passed in the midst of fierce wrangling between groups favoring slavery and groups opposing it, that attempted to give something to both sides.
Steph Douglas and "popular sovereignty"
let each state decide if slavery exists there or not
Kansas- Nebraska Act
allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their border
a series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery and pro slavery elements in Kansas
The leader of the Radical Republicans in the US Senate during the Civil War
- working to destroy confederacy, free all slaves, and stay on good terms with Europe
What did Charles Sumner do?
he files suit to be free because he lived over the citizenship requirement in a free state
excluded free blacks from living in Kansas and allowed male citizens of the US to vote
an American abolitionist who advocated that armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow slavery
John Brown; to start a liberation movement among the slaves there
Who led a raid at Harper's Ferry?
he was found guilty for treason, 5 counts of murder, and inciting slave insurrection then was lynched
How and why did John Brown die?
"first sectional party"
confined to and grown in a single section of the country
Election of Abraham Lincoln
-became the 16th president and secured his position as president by creating the new Republican party
-was an American lawyer and politician
Secession of "Lower South"
worked closely with President Lincoln to lead the union army to victory over the Confederacy
George B. McClellan
Union army commander appointed by Lincoln; was a great organizer; known for transforming inexperienced troops into an army of trained soldiers ready for battle.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
the first major battle of the Civil War fought at a railroad junction in northern Virginia on July 21, 1861. The Union was defeated, the Confederates felt affirmed in their superiority and the inevitability of Confederate nationhood.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest single day of war resulting in 25,000 casualties
- also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the Confederate states would be free.
-Corinth was a major railroad hub
-Confederates plan a surprise attack on grant
-Overnight - grant regroups and gets reinforcement
-Union takes back all the land they lost and drives confederates into retreat
-US navy takes new orleans
Ulysses S. Grant
18th President of the United States, Commanding General of the Army, soldier, international statesman, and author. During the American Civil War he led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy with the supervision of President Abraham Lincoln
Battle of Chancellorsville
confederate victory and defeat
-Victory because they won
-But defeat because Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle
Battle of Gettysburg
the largest number of casualties of the entire war and considered the turning point
Fall of Vicksburg
-a strategic point of the greatest importance
-the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
Fall of Atlanta
the battle occurred midway through the campaign to cause the city to fall
William T Sherman
led the union forces to defeat Confederate forces
"March to the Sea"
- a campaign conducted after the fall of Atlanta
- Sherman and Grant's strategic and economic planning warfare was similar to Vicksburg campaign
- where General Robert Lee (confederate) surrendered his army to General Ulysees S Grant (union)
formally abolishing slavery in all US territory in all cases except for punishment for crime
2 major dilemmas for Reconstruction
1. cause freedmen to work and live on plantations they've been working on with a contract and salary, if they refused they could be arrested.
2. States refusal to comply
confederate states may rejoin the union and their population be considered IF AND ONLY IF 10% of the voting population take a loyalty oath
a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South in contrast to the 10% plan
Andrew Johnson's philosophy of Reconstruction
consisted of liberal policy, "black codes", Freedmen's bureau, and the 39th congress
designed to restrict blacks' activity and ensure their availability as a labor force
What did blacks' sign to confirm they would work?
they would be fined or forced to unpaid labor
What happened to Blacks' if they disobeyed the contracts?
they provided food, housing, medical care, established schools, and offered legal assistance
came to a shortage of funds and personnel
Why did the Freedmen's bureau stop?
meeting of the legislature branch consisting of the Senate and HOR
Civil Rights Act of 1866
-to define and affirm equal citizenship for African American descent born or brought to the US and being protected by the law
-The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
no state can deny your citizenship
impeachment of Andrew Johnson
he was in violation of "high crimes and misdemeanors" referring to Article Two of the US Constitution
granted the right to vote to all male citizens
achievements of radical reconstruction
universal male suffrage, public education, public works/internal improvements
limits of radical reconstruction
land reform and integration
Democratic backlash against Reconstruction
democratic mobilization and vigilante terrorism from the KKK, also enforcement acts
arranged underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed at white and black Republican leaders
white and democratic men
Who did the KKK want in power?
What was Enforcement Acts goal?
to enforce the 15th amendment
What did the Enforcement Acts do?
-set up combat attacks on the suffrage rights of African Americans from state officials or KKK
served as the 19th president; huge supporter of Republican government in the south
-During the American Civil War, he was seriously wounded fighting in the Union Army.
When Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts denounced "the crime against Kansas" in a widely publicized speech, a member of Congress from South Carolina, Preston Brooks, attacked him on the Senate floor and beat him senseless with a cane.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Secession of the Upper South
before Fort Sumter only 7 states had seceded, after four more (Virginia, NC, Tennessee, Arkansas) also seceded, capital moved to Richmond, VA; when Lincoln called for troops arkansas, tennessee, north carolina, and virginia joined the CSA
Recommended textbook explanations
HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
Creating America: Beginnings through World War I (California)
United States History: Modern America (California)
Alan Taylor, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts
Creating America: Beginnings through Reconstruction
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