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Terms in this set (288)
the ratio between the output and the resources expended to obtain the desired output.
Durable medical equipment is
defined by Medicare as that which can withstand repeated use, is primarily and customarily used to serve a medical purpose, and generally is not useful to a person in the absence of illness or injury.
Close supervision is defined as
daily direct contact at the site of work.
Routine supervision is
provided when direct contact is made every 2 weeks with "interim supervision occurring by other methods such as telephone or written communication.
contact is made monthly
Minimal supervision is
provided on an as needed basis
Sheltered workshops are
segregated settings designed to help individuals master basic work skills
typically occurs in regular work sites, and provides intensive, ongoing support to individuals with disabilities.
Job coaching is one form of
supported employment for individuals with disabilities.
Improved verbal and nonverbal communication skills would be the most relevant behavioral outcome indicating program effectiveness in the area of
social skills development
The first step in a new program development is to
obtain as much information as possible about the topic (frequency and severity of injuries, causes, and prevention)
Walking as part of a walking club throughout a facility can provide an outlet for the movement needs of some people with
dementia. It can be calming, provide an activity of exploration, and help to refocus the resident.
Tai chi incorporates slow stretching movements which help improve
balance which is often affected when muscles become rigid, particularly muscles of the neck and trunk.
What type of activities would be best for promoting a sense of competence and mastery over the environment.
Activities that can be completed in one session, are structured for success, and yield a tangible end product are very likely to turn out well regardless of the individuals skill level.
What type of activities are more effective for team building than those involving competition.
Activities based on the concepts of building and creating and that result in one shared outcome
What particular craft project is useful for expressing thoughts or feelings about a theme, such as nutritional foods or leisure activities one enjoys participating in.
What type of group project would promote self-esteem and self expression.
Putting on a resident talent show.
The primary purpose of documentation is to
facilitate the treatment process. It is also to serve as legal documentation, to report services provided for reimbursement, and to provide communication among the team, patient, or family.
The objective section of a soap note includes
measured results based on an individual's performance.
The subjective section of a soap note includes
information provided by the patient or family.
Medication noncompliance is a primary factor related to
frequent readmissions for individuals with psychiatric conditions.
A group that can be structures to encourage patients to share similar concerns regarding adjustment after hospitalization
discharge planning group
The assessment portion of a soap note contains
the analysis of plans and goals for the patient..and involves the professional judgment of the therapist.
What type of activities should a COTA provide to a Manic person?
An activity that is short term, predictable with few steps because a person experiencing a manic episode is likely to exhibit high energy levels, short attention span, poor frustration tolerance, difficulty delaying gratification, and making decisions.
What tools are effective for individuals with ataxia to improve control during performance of a task?
Weighting body parts and utensils (writing tools)
Compensation techniques are used to
work around a deficit area by using alternative methods to accomplish the same task.
The neurophysiological approach is
applied to individuals with brain damage. Emphasis is on the nervous system and methods for eliciting desired responses.
The rehabilitative approach
teaches an individual how to compensate for a deficit on either a temporary or permanent basis.
What are some effective ways of managing edema?
elevation, contrast baths, retrograde massage, pressure wraps, and active range of motion
What type of clothing would a child with difficulty in self-dressing due to incoordination (as seen in athetoid CP) use?
loose fitting with simple or no fasteners
What type of activities would you use to normalize tone in a schizophrenic patient's posture?
bilateral use of tonic muscles against resistance, such as digging a garden, playing volleyball, or playing tug of war.
Retention of a skill will be enhanced if the task is practiced
in its entirety during each performance trial because the whole task performance is easier to recall than separate steps.
Generalization of skills is enhanced when
an activity has been acquired in a setting that resembles the natural environment where the skill will be performed
Most underlying issues for personality disorders
are related to inaccurate perceptions of the self and others
The group progression begins with parallel groups then the
project group, then egocentric cooperative groups, then cooperative groups and finally mature groups.
When fatigue impedes occupational performance,
energy conservation techniques should be considered.
Some ways to conserve energy would include,
avoiding bending and stooping, avoiding unnecessary trips, using an appropriate work height, and relaxing homemaking standards.
The use of auditory, visual, or tactile sensory cues help the person this type of condition to change the motor program in which they are engaged.
What are appropriate adjunct activities to be used during the acute stages of tennis elbow?
ice application, immobilization, and splinting.
Children who lack sensory discrimination skills in the hands use the weighted holder because
it increases proprioceptive (deep-pressure) feedback to the joints and muscles in the hand and wrist, adding to children's awareness of the position and movement of the hand, fingers, and wrist in relation to the pencil and paper.
The purpose of a closure activity in a five-stage group is to
provide a familiar activity to end the group on a positive, affirming note.
Work hardening programs are
designed to include and/or simulate job related tasks that gradually progress the client to obtain the skills that meet the actual demands of a job.
Home health is only appropriate for individuals who
are unable to leave their homes to attend outpatient OT.
Verbalization of stressful feelings and problems is
an effective stress coping strategy that also serves to reinforce connection with reality
Children with innate temperament problems need
cognitive strategies to help them overcome anxiety in order to approach and participate in activities.
What type of interventions can be used to prevent or relieve joint stiffness?
Contrast baths, active and passive range of motion, and massages
For more established types of joint stiffness, what type of treatment techniques can be used?
ultrasound, e-stim, dynamic splinting, and joint mobilization
A volar pan splint is indicated for the wrist, fingers, and thumb joints during
An ulnar drift splint is
used to prevent ulnar drift while maintaining joint alignment for grasp and pinch activities.
A wrist stabilization spint is
indicated for wrist pain and to protect the extensor tendons from rupture.
A protective MP joint splint is
to assist in keeping the MP joints in normal alignment, while preventing volar subluxation.
What helps a person with motor apraxia perform a task?
Visualizing the task first and its movement sequences by giving a visual model to refer to during the activity.
What helps a person with ideational apraxia perform a task?
step by step commands because is helps in understanding the concept of the task.
What helps a person with visual perceptual deficits perform a task?
removing visual distractions and enhancing the visual environement
The purpose of applying remedial strategies is to enhance
underlying abilities with teaching and training methods as commonly used techniques
An interest checklist
is a tool used to identify the degree of an individual's interest in a variety of leisure areas
Many patients with TBI exhibit concrete thinking in which they are able to
interpret information only at the most literal level so allowing time for delayed responses is frequently necessary.
The initial phase of treatment for an individual with Guillain-Barre Syndrome includes
PROM, splinting, and positioning to protect weak muscles and prevent contractures.
Following the initial phase of treatment for an individual with Guillain-Barre Syndrome includes
gentle, non resistive activities and light ADLs as tolerated.
In the final phases for an individual with Guillain-Barre Syndrome when strength improves a treatment includes
resistive exercises, and balance and stabilization activities
Hand splinting during the acute phases of rehabilitation to promote tenodesis is implemented to allow the finger flexors to shorten in patients that sustained SCI in what Cervical vertebrae?
C6 to C7
Conditional reasoning is a
form of clinical reasoning that takes into account various systems and dynamics involved with the patient and his or her illness or injury.
Reasoning based on corresponding an individual's deficits and physical symptoms with a _____ that may benefit the area of need is referred to as
is a process by which the practitioner and patient collaborate so that the practitioner may better understand the patient's environment or situation.
Narrative reasoning is
a form of "story telling" in which practitioners share similar experiences, allowing for problem solving to occur
Inhibition of flexor spasticity occurs through
slow joint compression from weight bearing as well as facilitation of ulnar to radial function in the hand.
Expressive groups are used to
assist individuals in expressing their inner thoughts, feelings, anxieties, and beliefs.
A boutonniere deformity is typically characterized by
PIP joint flexion and DIP joint hyperextension
A mallet deformity is characterized by
DIP joint flexion and a loss of active extension
A swan neck deformity is characterized by
PIP joint hyperextension and DIP joint flexion
Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments are a good tool for assessing
Manual muscle test grade 5 is (normal)
if an individual is able to move the joint actively through the entire movement, that is, completed passively and then take maximum resistance
Manual muscle test grade 4 is (good)
the grade given when an individual is able to move a part through the available range against gravity and is able to sustain moderate resistance.
Manual muscle test grade 3 is (fair)
the grade given when an individual is able to move a part through the full range against gravity, but lacks the strength for any resistance.
Manual muscle test grade 3- (fair minus) is
the grade given when an individual moves a part against gravity though less than the full range of motion and is the lowest grade level that includes range against gravity.
defense mechanisms are unconscious intrapsychic processes by which anxiety producing information or wishes are kept out of conscious awareness.
a process by which a person attributes to another person the feelings he is really having himself
when an individual makes excuses for unacceptable behavior
when an individual reverts to infantile or childlike behavior as a way of dealing with a difficult situation.
Equilibrium reactions are
compensatory movements used to regain stability, not to maintain stability.
Visual-motor integration skills
require coordination of eyes with hands such that the eyes guide complex, precise movements.
Visual acuity refers to
the ability to see clearly
Visual tracking is
the ability to follow targets with smooth eye movements
Visual perception refers to
the capacity to interpret sensory input, recognize similarities and differences and assign meaning to what is seen.
Athetoid CP is characterized by
widely fluctuating tone
Hypertonic muscle tone or spasticity results in impaired ability to
control movement or force of movement.
Hypotonia, or low tone results in
flaccid muscles and floppy movements
A key principle in interventions with intellectually challenged students for effective transition includes
using natural environments and cues, and increasing community-based instruction as the student gets older.
Needs assessment is
the necessary first step of gathering data about a population, treatment needs, and resources available
Program planning involves
establishing goals and objectives based on the results of a needs assessment
occurs following program planning and involves coordination, assessment, and intervention selection
occurs after implementation and involves systematic review and analysis of the program based on achievement of program goals
How many feet are required for a wheel chair to turn 180 or 360 degrees?
proper height for grab bars to allow for the UE to lift the body with enough clearance to transfer onto a toilet seat
Gross motor activities, involving either aerobic exercise or stretching and relaxation can help reduce the physical symptoms associated with
A major component of "rough and tumble" form of play is
gross motor activity like running, hopping, skipping and tumbling without any typical goal
Techniques used to develop tolerance to touch and pressure in a hypersensitive limb include
massage, tapping, use of textures, and weight bearing on the distal end of a residual limb
Compression gloves are good at
A individual with a C5 injury may require what type of AD for brushing teeth?
MAS (mobile arm support)
A individual with a C5-C6 injury may require what type of AD for brushing teeth?
universal cuff or wrist support with a utensil holder
Copying a triangle is a task that is at the age
5 - 6 years
Copying a horizontal line is a task that is at the age
Copying numerals is typically observed at what age?
5 - 6 years
Scribbling on a piece of paper typically occurs at what age?
10 - 12 months
A pill organizer box is useful for
individuals who have memory deficits or complex medication regimens
White print on black background is easier to see for individuals with
The ability to generalize is essential in making a new skill functional for a child with
A student with tremors or poor coordination can reduce instability by
stabilizing the limb proximally before working distally.
The most appropriate activities to begin treatment for a person with severe depression in the early stages are
repetitive, structured and simple enough to ensure success..such as housework, folding laundry, simple cooking, sanding, clerical tasks, and sewing which require minimal amount of attention span, concentration, and energy level.
The most appropriate activities to begin treatment for a person with severe depression in the later stages are
engagement in leisure exploration, meditation, and stress management which require attention span, concentration, and energy level.
To prevent scar formation during the surgical or postoperative phase of treatment you can do what?
Apply static splinting
Retrograde massage assists with
the facilitation of blood and lymph movement
Hot packs and paraffin can assist with
soft tissue and joint mobility as well as pain
Contrasts baths cause vasodilation and vasoconstriction which facilitate
a pumping out of the edema.
Use of instruction cards represent what type of approach?
adaptation and compensation
To self-monitor is an example of a
strategy to control the tendency to miss details involved in the task process
For attention deficits, one way to adapt the environment would be to
remove unnecessary objects from the task area to decrease distractions
Remediation of identified deficits can be organized into three general approaches in psychosocial settings:
enhancing the individual's skills and performance, assisting the individual in adjusting his or her perspective on skills and performance, and altering the environment.
Autogenic training utilizes the concept of
mental imagery in order to achieve muscle relaxation and vasodilation
Progressive relaxation exercises are most relevant with client's with shoulder tension. It involves
tensing and relaxing muscle groups, one group at a time from head to foot
A P switch is a piezoelectric sensor that is
activated by tensing a muscle so that a signal is relayed to a switch
A rocking level switch
activates a device when one side of the switch is pushed, and turns the device off when the other side of the switch is pushed
An infrared switch sends an infrared beam from the switch to a surface that reflects the light back to the switch. When the beam is broken, the switch is activated. How can it be activated?
by an eye blink or finger twitch
A sip and puff switch
operated by breath control and is unaffected by random movements of the extremities.
Practicing a variety of tasks in a nonsystematic, but repetitive way (variable practice), can
enhance learning retention and transfer of skills because the novelty introduced into the task engages more cognitive effort
A functional-position rest hand splint
will prevent flexion contractures from developing and allow access to hand for cleaning
Dynamic finger-extension splints
are appropriate for individuals who have active finger flexion, but limited active finger extension.
Cognitive level 4 are able to
copy demonstrated directions presented one step at a time. They find it easier to copy a sample than to follow directions or diagrams.
Cognitive level 3 are capable of
using their hands for simple, repetitive tasks but are unlikely to produce a consistent end product.
Cognitive level 5 can generally
perform a task involving three familiar steps and one new one.
Cognitive level 6 can anticipate
errors and plan ways to avoid them. These individuals would be capable of following written directions.
Gentle repetitive, resistive exercises help maintain
strength and endurance in weakened muscles such as a person with ALS
Awareness of thought processes is appropriate to a goal related to
Parallel groups are most appropriate for people who
do not have the ability to interact successfully with other group members. The tasks are individual and require minimal interaction.
Taking leadership roles is a goal consistent with
egocentric cooperative groups
Sharing materials with another group member is a
project group goal
Expressing feelings within a group is consistent with a
Expressive activities address
psychosocial needs to increase self-awareness by providing opportunities for emotional self-expression and self-assertion
Psychosocial components include
time management, social conduct, interpersonal skills, and self-control.
Prevocational skills include
punctuality and accepting feedback
Cognitive components include
memory, decision making, attention to tasks, and sequencing.
Sensorimotor components include
standing tolerance, endurance, and eye-hand coordination
Work performance areas include
grooming and adhering to safety precautions
A child with JRA should stay away from resistive material because
highly resistive materials such as clay, leather, and copper sheets with applied pressure to the joints could exacerbate the condition
With MS, high temperatures
exacerbate the symptoms
T4 paraplegia will have
sufficient trunk balance, upper extremity strength, and coordination to complete self-care and transfers independently
Identifying an object by touch is called
The biomechanical approach is based on
enhancing strength, range of motion, and endurance. It is typically used when impairment does not affect the intact nervous system. Primarily for musculoskeletal system
The rehabilitative approach emphasizes
making an individual as independent as possible, compensates for limitations, and incorporates the use of adaptive equipment
The NDT approach is used for
individuals who are born with a central nervous system dysfunction, have experienced an illness, or have had an injury to the neural system. Based on using SI and developmental sequences to promote function.
The Model of Human Occupation recognizes that
human performance is organized and directed by volition, habituation, and mind-brain-body systems.
With a median nerve injury, the unlar side of the hand is the uninvolved side and should be
The social workers report includes details about
the patient's family situation, occupational, educational, and cultural background, and expected environment.
Interviews with the patient and family by OT practitioners are designed to
obtain information concerning role and task performance, and performance levels in work, self-care, and leisure.
Activities used in evaluation groups should require
group collaboration that can be done in approximately 45 minutes and emphasize process rather than end product.
The collage and crafts activities are
individual activities and do not demand group interaction
The ability to recall events from one's distant past is
Retention is determined b
giving the individual information and asking about the same information a few minutes later
Recent memory is determined by
asking about meals eaten that day
The neck righting reaction involves
body alignment in rotation after turning the head
Line bisection is used as
a method of determining unilateral neglect
The block assembly is used for
evaluating constructional apraxia
A plaster cylindrical splint
encourages a static stretch of the PIP joint contracture
A blocking splint
used to isolate tendon and joint range of motion.
Retention of a skill will be enhanced if the task is practiced
Sheltered workshops are
segregated settings designed to help individuals master basic work skills
5 levels of complexity for meal preparation level 2 is
instant pudding and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches
5 levels of complexity for meal preparation level 3 is
preparation of hot beverages, soups, or frozen dinners
5 levels of complexity for meal preparation level 4 is
preparation of a hot one dish meal such as macaroni and cheese
5 levels of complexity for meal preparation level 5 is
having an individual prepare a multicourse meal, such as chicken and mashed potatoes.
Form constancy perception is
the ability to match similar shapes regardless of change in their orientation in space
Position in space perception
is the ability to determine the spatial relationships of the beads to each other in a bead lacing.
Visual sequencing is
an activity that requires the ability to copy the same sequence of beads in a bead lacing.
In social skills training, Self expressive skills is when you
state your feelings and opinions
In social skills training, Other-Enhancing skills is when you
give compliments, smiling, and expressing interest
In social skills training, Assertive skills is when you
make requests, disagree with another's opinion
In social skills training, Communication skills is when you
control the tone and quality of your voice
In a social skills training session the four phases are
motivation, demonstration, practice, and feedback
During the motivation phase of social skills training session
ID the behavior to be learned and explain why it is important
During the demonstration phase of social skills training session
show the person how the behavior is performed which can be done by modeling therapist, role playing, film, or videotape
During the practice phase of social skills training
rehearse the desired behavior, talking through it, role playing with another client
During the feedback phase of social skills training
given at the end of treatment, summarize what the person has learned and focus attention on what is to be learned next.
Three categories of roles within a group
task roles, group maintenance roles, and antigroup or egocentric roles
4 ways to prepare for a group include
knowledge, space, materials, and paperwork
A needs assessment is the necessary first step of
gathering data about a population, treatment needs, and resources available.
Program planning involves
establishing goals and objectives based on the results of the needs assessment
Program evaluation occurs
after implementation, and involves systematic review and analysis of the program based on achievement of program goals
SCI C-1 to C-4 function is
may be ventilator dependent, tetraplegia
SCI C-5 function is
shoulder and bicep control, no wrist or hand function
SCI C-6 function is
wrist control, no hand function
SCI C-7 to T-1 function is
dexterity problems, can move upper extremities
SCI T-1 to T-8 function is
poor trunk control, good upper extremity function
SCI T-9 to T-12 function is
good trunk and abdominal muscle control
In-hand manipulation shifting is developed by
separating playing cards, a child uses the tripod grasp to practice shifting skills
For lower back pain, how should you sleep?
Sleep on back with pillow under knees
what medication-related precaution is important regarding outdoors?
Need to protect oneself from direct sun when taking psychotropic medications
What is Prader-Willi syndrome?
pediatric obsession with eating...
Sick cell anemia
certified driving rehab specialist
Projective test using House-Tree-Person
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
For a client with an L2 spinal cord injury, which statement BEST describes the muscle segments below the injury level 1 to 2 months postinjury?
Muscles below the level of injury generally develop spasticity because the monosynaptic reflex arc is intact but separated from higher inhibitory influences.
A 4-year-old child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is using a tire swing for vestibular input to feel more organized. After a few minutes, the child appears to have some autonomic reactions to the fast swinging. Which course of action for the COTA® is BEST?
Research indicates that proprioceptive input inhibits vestibular stimulation. Ask the child to slow down the swinging by pulling a trapeze bar for proprioceptive input.
Mini-mental state examination
is the curative factor gained from other members' sharing of similar feelings, thoughts, and problems
is the release of strong feelings about previous or present experiences
is the feeling of trust and togetherness in a group
is when members feel a boost in self-concept from extending help to others
Education related to the progression of AD would be most important to a caregiver because
such knowledge would allow the caregiver to have more control in choosing what types of intervention would be appropriate for the client and would, in turn, reduce caregiver stress.
As people get older, a typical visual aging symptom would be
slowing ability to adapt to light and dark conditions
Macular degeneration causes the symptom of
difficulty recognizing and reading facial expressions
The Resident Assessment Instrument, part of the minimum data set is completed with the Medicare of the setting
skilled nursing facility
At age 2, a child should be able to doff a coat after fasteners have been unfastened; should be able to remove shoes if not tied, help with pulling down pants, and locate armholes in shirt?
A patient with anorexia nervosa concerned with time usage and reducing depression along with binging and purging should receive
explored volunteer options and allow the OTR or COTA to accompany the client to the first volunteer meetings
The development test of visual motor integration
assesses the client's ability to coordinate observed visual stimuli with motor responses
The visual screening test
assesses a client's visual functions, such as acuity, peripheral fields, contrast, and phorias
The depth perception test
assesses the client's ability to judge distance, such as parking in a parking place
The motor-free visual perception test
assesses the ability to visually identify forms or objects from incomplete presentations
Travel training is
short-term, direct, and intensive training to teach older adults and people with disabilities to use fixed-route public transportation safely and independently
People with achondroplasia (often referred to as dwarfism) limbs have typical width but are
shorter in length, to reaching an upper cupboard to obtain an item would be difficult
Functional play with children use
real objects to re-create real-life situations
Stacking colored rings with children is considered
Locating items with children is considered
Pretending with children is considered
The focus in a community reentry program should be on
engaging the client in the community with the skills needed to successfully live free from incarceration
A sling that fits proximally around the humerus of a brachial plexus injury will
prevent a client from sustaining further injury to the brachial plexus during ADLs
Displaying a photograph of a client and name with dementia on their bedroom door at a SNF would benefit because it does not rely on
not causing harm
Beneficence related to
safety and health clients
Autonomy relates to
respecting a person's rights, privacy, and freedom
Fidelity relates to
being fair to colleagues and avoiding plagiarism
A COTA® is working with a client who has a dorsal scar resulting in limited metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion of the fingers. When fabricating a dynamic MCP flexion splint, what is the correct angle of pull for a finger loop?
A 90° angle of pull distributes the pressure most evenly to the proximal phalanx. If the angle of pull is greater or less than 90°, the torque is less effective, and skin breakdown may result.
Health promotion relates to
promoting health rather than compensating for the loss of function
In the scope of practice, Maintenance relates to
maintaining person's functioning
In the scope of practice, Prevention relates to
prevention (falls prevention, preventing further contractions or injury)
Splinting and teaching use of a dressing stick are interventions aimed more at
compensatory strategies under the rehabilitative frame of reference
As a person ages, the skin thins, and adipose tissue is lost. Soft straps and padding add comfort and prevent skin breakdown. So a 77 year old using a resting hand splint would benefit?
Primary injury prevention is aimed at
workers who have NOT experienced symptoms of a work-related injury
Workers who have risk factors for injury or who have experienced mild symptoms would receive
secondary injury prevention
Workers who have experienced nonreversible injuries requiring medical intervention would receive
tertiary injury prevention
Executional praxis is the
ability to perform the motor action with precision
Bilateral integration and sequencing dyspraxia occurs when a person is able to compare previous motor plans and sensory information to detect feedback errors, but has difficulty correcting the plan after attempting again?
Water-based exercises allow for low-impact ROM and isometric strengthening while providing social interaction and peer support for a client with osteoarthritis?
During the initial phase post-skin graft operation, it is important to maintain immobilization for 2-7 days or per the physician's specific instruction?
is a result of an ulnar nerve injury and hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal joint in the small and ring finger with proximal interphalangeal flexion.
Ape hand deformity
the result of a high median nerve injury at the elbow or proximal forearm and causes a loss in precision pinch, thenar opposition, and the ability to bend the index and long fingers at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints.
Playing Simon Says requires social skills, auditory processing, and praxis skills, which are typical areas of challenge for children with autism?
Engagement in activity-based interventions, along with daily structure, has been documented to assist in fall prevention?
Emotional stress may exacerbate symptoms in clients with MS, especially relapse-related anxiety. This strategy is client centered and will empower the client with MS to problem solve and handle difficult tasks.
Coping strategies for self-identified difficult tasks
Use close-ended questions to prevent frustration caused by difficulty in word retrieval.
43.A client sustained a nondisplaced humeral neck fracture after a fall. Which is the BEST course of occupational therapy that one would expect the OTR® to note on the evaluation?
With a nondisplaced fracture of the humeral neck, support from a sling and supervised exercise lead to the most desirable outcome.
COTA® is describing a client with a hand injury to the OTR®. The COTA® states that the client presents with burning and stabbing pain in the hand, shiny skin, very stiff joints, and abnormal sweating and hair growth. What medical condition does this client MOST likely have?
Symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome often include pain, swelling, stiffness, and pseudomotor and trophic changes.
Fibromyalgia presents with
pain, fatigue, and tender trigger points
Carpal tunnel syndrome presents with
numbness and tingling in the thumb and index and middle fingers
Thenar side of the hand
What is coaching
Instructing the client with verbal cues in the steps of the process and how to perform each step
facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
The condition progresses so that the facial muscles have decreased mobility; children eventually have a masklike appearance. The condition usually has an onset before adolescence, and it progresses until children cannot raise their arms above their heads.
Limb girdle muscular dystrophy
The condition progresses slowly, and children often experience difficulty with muscles around their pelvis and shoulder girdle.
The condition progresses quickly, and children often need to use a wheelchair by age 9.
A resting hand orthosis keeps soft tissue positioned in optimal mobility with flexion of the MCPs at 45° to 60°; 55° would accomplish this, and 25° of slight extension would maintain the wrist in a position that would not compromise
the median nerve
The Minnesota Rate of Manipulation
is a test of eye-hand coordination and speed.
usually design, develop, adapt, test, and evaluate technological features of wheelchairs, not accessories.
is a musculoskeletal injury resulting from repetition. A high-risk repetition rate for the elbow is more than 10 repetitions per minute.
begin teaching dressing skills to a 4-year-old child with autism. To ensure success during the first attempt, which activity should the COTA® choose?
When beginning to teach dressing skills, the COTA® begins with basic, simple articles of clothing, such as loose-fitting pants and over-the-head, slightly large shirts, to allow for success.
Reporting changes in patient performance on the basis of interventions provided interprets what occurred in the session and is appropriate for the
Reporting modifications to an intervention on the basis of how the patient understands the information is interpreting the session, which is appropriate for the
A COTA® is establishing an occupational therapy group in a state correctional facility for clients with schizophrenia who are the parents of small children. What area of focus would be MOST important for a group in this setting?
Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system focuses primarily on community reentry. Skills in ADLs and IADLs, including child care, are essential to community reentry. For these clients, assessing parenting skills would be a focus of the occupational therapy evaluation process.
When most of the wounds are closed, a Jobst or other
pressure garment is the best choice to prevent hypertrophic scarring. Adding inserts increases the effectiveness of compression therapy.
Elastic bandaging provides light compression and is best used
initially when the wounds are not closed.
Evaluation results indicate a client who has frozen shoulders has 85° shoulder flexion and abduction bilaterally. The client wants to increase ROM for completing homemaking tasks. Which activity would be MOST EFFECTIVE for promoting progress toward this goal?
Folding bed sheets would facilitate shoulder flexion beyond 85° while completing the task and work toward increasing ROM.
How would the OTR® BEST have the COTA® assess grip strength to determine whether client is exhibiting maximal effort?
Have the client complete one trial on each of the five handle settings of the Jamar dynamometer. The five-level grip test is used to determine maximum and consistent effort by clients. The OTR®should expect the strongest grip on the second and third handle settings
Knees above hips in a wheel chair with soreness under butt means what?
The client's footrests are too high, resulting in increased pressure at the ischial tuberosities and the coccyx. When the hip joint is maintained in flexion, the pelvis is prone to tilt posteriorly, increasing pressure in the lumbar region. Lowering the footrests distributes pressure more evenly over the thighs.
Being able to sort by type and size would support the child's ability to
categorize objects on the basis of similarities and to note differences among objects. This skill is an important precursor to successful participation in ADLs and educational occupations.
A COTA® treating a client listens as the client says, "My pain is really bad, forcing me to stay in bed 24/7, and I am not able to take care of myself at all." Which clarifying response is BEST
"It seems that your pain is so bad you can't get up to go to the bathroom or get yourself food from the kitchen."
With tonic-clonic seizures,
people experience an "aura" or a sensation that the seizure is about to begin. During this type of seizure, people usually lose consciousness and their body goes through a series of rhythmic clonic contractions.
: Akinetic seizures involve the loss of
normal muscle tone for approximately 30 minutes or more.
People having absence seizures
look like they are "zoning out" or daydreaming; these seizures are characterized by a brief lapse or loss of awareness. In addition, clients who experience absence seizures will suspend all motor activity (even eye blinking) during a seizure. These seizures usually last less than 30 seconds.
A client with a recent diagnosis of dementia is receiving occupational therapy. The caregivers are most distressed about significant behavioral changes that have occurred since the client was diagnosed. The client has become increasingly impulsive and difficult to redirect. What type of dementia does this client MOST LIKELY have?
With RA, Splinting all the joints of the hand reduces the chances of
increased stress on unsupported joints. Studies have suggested that compliance increases with soft splints
Dynamic splinting is primarily used to
decrease soft-tissue contractures surrounding joints, not to reduce hypertrophic scarring of the skin. Splints are worn over the pressure garment, not under it.
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