36 terms

The Progressive Era

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Terms in this set (...)

What was Progressivism?
A movement of reform to expand government and overpower private capitalist interests and regulations (or lack thereof)
What is socialism?
When the government runs businesses that provide services and products ("let us not destroy these machines that produce efficiently and cheaply. Let us control them. Let us profit by their efficiency and cheapness. Let us run them for ourselves. That, gentlemen, is socialism."

(to put in perspective...in the US, we are a capitalist country, but we have socialized police and fire protection, roads and bridges, water projects and other infrastructure, school, public health, etc...)
What were some Progressive Ideals?
Having a faith in democracy, a desire to increase the participation oft he average citizen in political decision-making, and that government COULD be an ally!
Explain the idea of a "laboratory of democracy"
A stsate would be chosen to experiment with new ideas, laws and other things and if successful, would be practiced in other states
An example of a popular "laboratory of democracy?"
Wisconsin
What was the "Wisconsin Idea" and who was it pioneered by?
"Fighting Bob" LaFollette - used academic research and scholarship from universities and applied it to solving the problems of the people (hire experts and professors, not career politicians)
What caused (or brought about the need) for a Progressive Era?
People were tired of the lack of government and heightened control of capitalists that had become the norm in American during the Gilded Age.
How did Progressivism transform the role of the government?
Government power was greatly expanded - this was seen with Roosevelt whose moral conscious trumped the laws of the constitution and expanded his powers in order to right many wrongs in the country
Who were the progressives?
All types of people! Whether you were a democrat or republican, progressivism seemed to be a universal positive change that everyone wanted to be apart of.
Social change occurs from the ______ not the _____
bottom up, top down
What kind of people made the progressive movement possible, and what kind of people was the movement focused on?
By average people, for average people! (Government officials will only take action when the citizens bring issues to their attention!)
Name progressive people (and what they did)

Upton Sinclaire

Jane Addams

Ida Wells-Barnet

Alice Paul

Jacob Riis
Upton Sinclair - Muckraker - The Jungle (helped pass the Pure Food and Drug Act)

Jane Addams - founded the Hull House and provided for the less-fortunate

John Dewey - education reform

Ida Wells-Barnet (fought for equality and spoke out for black women's rights)

Alice Paul - fought for women's suffrage and helped pass 19th amendment

Jacob Riis - helped to improve sanitary conditions for the slums, parks and playgrounds
What important Progressive ideas were created by intellectuals, writers, and thinkers?
muckrakers who uncovered corruption, direct primary, the wisconsin idea
Who were the "muckrakers" and what impact did they have on American history?
They were writers/journalists who sought to bring attention to corruption in America. Because of them, many new reforms and laws were passed (Ex: Upton Sinclair: exposed dangerous of factory work, poverty and meat processing - Ida Tarbell: exposed Rockefeller as a "greedy money grabber and contributed to the break up of his company)
How were municipal (city) governments reformed, improved, and in some cases even transformed around the country during the Progressive Era?


what was the city commission:

city manager:

what idea did these changes refer to?
Progressives took away some capitalist power by making socialist changes to cities

City commission: 2 commissioners (police, fire, sanitation) and a mayor elected

City manager: government - city council chooses a profession manager ho directs the departments of government

These referred back to the "Wisconsin idea"
What steps were taken to improve the lives of women and children during The Progressive Era?
Women: women suffrage movements were formed, 19th amendment, (Iron Jawed Angels)

Children: Federal Children's Bureau (fought child labor), Keating-Owen Child Labor law (prohibited interstate commerce in products made by children under the age of 16)
How did organizations like the Anti-Saloon League and the Women's Christian Temperance Union (led by Frances Willard) change America in significant ways?
Anti Saloon League: Promoted temperance/prohibition through written word and lobbying

WCTU: one of the most influential groups by expanding its platform to campaign for labor laws, prison reform, and suffrage
What was the fundamental disagreement and difference of opinion between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Dubois (what association did DuBois create) ?
Washington had a huge foothold in D.C, but was very supportive of African Americans taking a "back seat" to whites (accepted racial subordination as a necessary evil --> believed that blacks would just have to mull through it and do their best to earn a living and get an education to thrive in society). When he lost his foothold during Wilson's presidency, DuBois was able to step forward and advocate for political and civil rights of blacks and began the NAACP
Compare and contrast the approaches of NAWSA (National American Woman Suffrage Association) led by Carrie Chapman Catt and the National Women's Party (led by Alice Paul).
NAWSA: formed to unify efforts of many organizations to work towards accomplishing suffrage for women. (led by Carrie Chapman)

NWP: broke off from the NAWSA and had more radical views than it - they picketed the white house and (as we saw in Iron Jawed Angles) relentlessly protested, even while in jail.

NAWSA efforts were more moderate while NWP efforts were more radical. NWP was an offshoot from NAWSA. the passing of the 19th amendment, however, resulted because of the efforts of both parties.
Why were settlement houses important centers of Progressivism?
Middle class women would live here and undertake reform in surrounding neighborhoods; it offered a chance for women to live in a female-dominated space and the resources to reform communities.
How did the conservation movement begin, and what did individuals and organizations accomplish?
political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources (animals, plants, fungus, etc...)

Widely promoted by Teddy Roosevelt through his created of the US National Forest Service and his protection of many acres of land (national parks)
Notable domestic achievements (T. Roosevelt)
Dept. of Commerce and Labor (break apart monopolies and reform business practices)

Elkins and Hepburn Act (RR regulations)

Pure Food and Drug Act (Upton Sinclair!! prohibition of the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food or drugs without correct labeling)

US Forest Service (helped protect wildlife and public lands)

Inviting Booker T. Washington to the White House for dinner

OVERALL: Roosevelt was the first modern president in the sense that he used the full authority of his office and expanded is powers for positive reasons - he was for the people
Notable domestic achievements (W.H. Taft)
Support of the 16th and 17th Amendments (provided fed. income tax, direct election, of senators, mining reforms, and fought against child labor)

Mann-Elkins Act (ICC authority was expanded to cover telephone, telegraph, and cable companies. Enabled the commission to suspend rates set by RRS)

Sherman Anti-Trust Act (used to prosecute anti trust)

OVERALL: the most conservative of the progressive presidents - uncomfortable with the exec. power that Teddy had given to the presidency, and drove up tariff prices)
Notable domestic achievements (W. Wilson)

Fed. Reserve Act:

Underwood Simmons Tariff:

Clayton Antitrust Law:

Keating-Owen Child Labor Laws:
Federal Reserve Act: US had more freedom to spend money --> allowed money to be managed federally and now we had a national currency

Underwood-Simmons Tariff: lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%

Clayton Antitrust law: outlawed specific business from practices such as price discrimination

Keating-Owen Child Labor Laws: prohibited interstate commerce in products made by children under the age of 16

Established more national park systems
Know about the triangle fire
...
Know about Iron Jawed Angels
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns broke away from NAWSA to form the NWP, a more radical way of fighting for women's rights. This movie reveals the harsh treatment that women protesting for the vote were given, including the time Paul and many of her followers spent in jail.
(Zinn) Notable socialist writers and activists and their analysis/activism
Jack London, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris
(Zinn) Socialist critique of early 20th century
criticism of capitalism and big businesses and factory management, safety, etc...
(Zinn) Unionism (AFL, IWW, etc...)
Purpose of a Union: giving workers legal rights against their bosses

AFL: an exclusive Union, filled with mostly white males and skilled workers

IWW: A working class movement, created "exclusively' for the people and would help workers in any industry regardless of sex, race, or skills. (gained workers many rights through organization of parade and positive beliefs)
(Zinn)
Who was Eugene Debs and what was the Socialist Party
Eugene Debs: founder to the socialist party

Socialist Party: Socialists wanted a system in which the means of production were socially owned an mutually organized
(Zinn) African Americans
African Americans suffered lynchings and other forms of racism and the progressive presidents mostly turned a blind eye. Even the socialist party (which many of them had belonged to) did little to advocate for racial segregation.
Zinn's alternative assessment of the Progressive Presidents
argued the presidents from a negative standpoint - they turned a blind eye with regards to immigrants and blacks
Direct primary? (introduced by whom)
Nominating process is taken out of the hands of bosses and into the hands of voters! Introduced by LaFollette (Wisconsin)
Direct election of US senators (how did this change from the original way they were elected?)
The constitution originally held that state senators were NOT elected by the people --> Nevada becomes the first state to give citizens the right to vote for senators --> finally required in the 17th Amendment
Direct Democracy reforms (what happened if politicians failed to obey the "will of the people.")

Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: citizens allowed to vote on specific measures placed on the ballot by the petition.

Referendum: citizens allowed to vote on bills referred to them by the legislature

Recall: citizens can remove elected officials from office by popular vote
Progressive ideas to take hold in states are listed here -->
child labor elimination, compulsory school laws, 10 hour work day for women, minimum wage laws, worker protection in factories, workmen's compensation laws, widow's pensions, rr commissions to regulate shipping rates)