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Figurative Language

the intentional departure from the normal order, construction or meaning in order to gain strength or freshness

3 types of Figurative language

rhetorical figures, tropes and figures of sounds

rhetorical figures

works keep their literal meanings but their rhetorical pattern change

Rhetorical figures are...

antistrophe, apostrophe, epistrophe and rhetorical questions

Tropes are...

Metaphore, Simile, Hyperbole, Litotes, Personification, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony and Symbol

Figures of Sound are...

Alliteration, Assonance, Consonance, Onomatopoeia,


the order of terms in the first of two parrallel clauses are reversed for the second

Antistrophe example

All for one and one for all


someone (usually not present) has some abstract quality, or god directly addressed as present

Apostrophe example

The invocation to the muse


a word or phrase is repeated at the end of several successive lines

Epistrophe example

The truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth

Rhetorical Question

A queston asked for the reason of persuasion


A comparison made between two things that are basically dissimular

Methaphor example

Richard was a lion in battle


The idea being expressed or the subject of the comparission


the image by which this idea is conveyed or the subject communicated

Implied metaphor

does not directly tell us that one thing is another different thing

Implied metaphor example

Old age Superbly rising

Dead Metaphor

A metaphor that is used so much that it has lost it force


the comparison of two unlike things using like or as


an exageration that is used for emphisis


something is said by saying the oppisite usually to make and understatement

Litotes example

She is not bad looking


and abstract thing or an intanimate object is given human charecteristics


replaces the name of one thing with the name of something else cloesly related to it

Metonymy example...

the pen is mightier than the sword


substiting the part of something for a person

Synecdoche example

all hands on deck


the straightforwad statement or event that is determened by its context so as to give it very different significance

3 types of Irony

Verbal Irony, Dramatic Irony and Situational Irony

Verbal Irony

speaker says one thing meaning but means something entirely different

Dramatic Irony

when the reader or audience perceives something that a charecter in the story does not know

Situational Irony

not a figure of speech it is a plot device, a charecter brings around an opposite result


stands for something larger

Figures of Sound

emphasis on the repitition of sound


the repition of the initial consanant sound


simular vowel sounds that end with different consant sound


the repitition of the same consant sound with different vowel sounds


the use of words where the sound suggests the meaning


the exact repitition of sounds

End Rhyme

a rhyme at the end of a line

Internal Rhyme

a rhyme that is in the middle of a line

Slant Rhyme

when the vowels are almost but not exacly the same

Masculine Rhyme

falls to the last syllable of a word or Rhyme

Feminie Rhyme

rhyme falls on the last two syallables of a word

Eye Rhyme

words that look the same and sound differently

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