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Charles II

restored the English monarchy after the Commonwealth; ruled 1660- 1685; the Merry Monarch

James II

Charles II's brother; ousted by Parliament in 1688; fled to France

Mary & William

queen & daughter of Charles II; William was a Dutch Protestant; Mary replaced the unpopular James II

The Glorious Revolution

Celebrating no bloodshed when William and Mary took the throne from James II

the 1689 Bill of Rights

Act in Parliament allowed the propertied classes to rule through an ELECTED Parliament


1702- James II daughter; last of the Stuarts; died in 1714

the Stuarts

Charles II through Anne

the Act of Settlement

In order to prevent the next English monarch from being Catholic, Parliament passed this act stating that they would appoint the next Protestant relative of James I to the monarchy.

the Act of Union

joined Scotland & England to form Great Britain

the House of Hanover

George I-III

the Industrial Revolution

technology developed, factories opened, & people moved from rural areas to form urban cities


had money and owned factories

the Pestilence

a plague that passed to humans from the fleas of rats

the Great Fire of 1666

destroyed 13,000 houses & 88 churches in 4 days; started in a bakery on Pudding Lane

Sir Isaac Newton

discovered the laws of gravity & invented calculus

James Hargreaves

invented the spinning jenny

James Watt

invented the steam engine

Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu

started a women's book club called the "bluestockings" to have political discussions @ home

forms of entertainment

spas, gambling, prize fighting, animal baiting

The Tatler and The Spectator

popular periodicals of the 18th century

the Age of Reason

Emphasized rational thinking& encouraged people to replace emotions with rational thought




lit. that exposes to ridicule the vices or follies of people or societies through devices such as exaggeration, incongruity, parody, reversal, and sarcasm

Godwin Swift

Swift's uncle who raised him after the death of his father

Jonathan Swift

parents are English, but he was born in Ireland, sent to live with his uncle, could read @ the age of 3, 14 when graduated, became an Anglican priest in Ireland, quit and went back to England- well informed & wrote political pamplets. and hated human's faults

"A Modest Proposal"

Swift's pamphlet that was written to call attention tothe abuses inflicted in Irish Catholics by well-to-do English Protestants; Juvenalian satire

verbal irony

the main weapon of the satirist; a figure of speech in which words are used to ridicule a person or thing by conveying a meaning that is the opposite of what the words say

George I

Didn't speak English; closest Protestant relative to James I; took over throne after Anne's death

George II

Didn't speak English; didn't like England

George III

born and educated in England; King during the American Revolution

horation satire

satire that mildly pokes fun at its subject

juvenalian satire

satire that mercilessly ridicules; contains scathing, savage remarks about its target

Robinson Crusoe

Daniel DeFoe's novel which tells the tale of a shipwrecked man; was published to enormous success in 1719

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Edward Gibbon's renowned work of the Age of Reason

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