Upgrade to remove ads
Criminal Justice Exams
Terms in this set (78)
The late eighteenth century marked a period when individuals and thinkers challenged tradition with new ideas about the individual, limitations on government, and rationalism. This period was called the __________.
Prior to 1800, how was a criminal who was found guilty of crimes such as pickpocketing, burglary, robbery, and horse stealing treated?
b. The criminal was sentenced to death.
How did the modern penal system differ from the earlier version of the system?
b. The modern penal system focused on changing the individual and setting him on the proper path.
An institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so they can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform is called a __________.
The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, formed in 1787 to undertake prison reform, was heavily influence by what two things?
a. Quakers and John Howard's ideas
What is the main difference between the separate confinement system and the congregate system?
c. Prisoners were allowed to work alongside one another during the day in the congregate system but were always in solitary confinement in the separate confinement system.
A corrections system that sells prisoner labor to private companies is called the __________.
b. contract labor system
What is the difference between the contract labor system and the lease system?
c. The contract labor system sold inmate labor to private companies; the lease system gave contractors custody of inmates for labor in exchange for food and clothing.
What was one result of the lease system?
b. Prisoners were worked to death under inhumane conditions.
A system that emphasized training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole was called the __________ system.
How was the reformatory system different from any previous system?
a. It gave inmates the ability to reduce their terms of imprisonment through behavior.
The Cincinnati Declaration of Principles addressed the problems of female offenders by advocating for __________.
b. separate prisons for women
When did the first independent, female-run prison for women first open its doors?
Compare the community corrections model to the medical model of corrections.
a. The community corrections model reintegrates the offender into the community; the medical model treats the biological or psychological conditions that cause criminal behavior.
Although the administration of probation and parole can vary, describe a common way these responsibilities are shared across government.
c. Probation is administered by the state judiciary, whereas parole is administered by the state executive branch in the form of a parole board.
What part of a state's government is responsible for the administration of prisons?
d. Executive branch
An inmate is housed in a prison that looks like a fortress, surrounded by stone walls with towers, and rows of chain link fence topped with razor wire. What level of security is this prison?
An inmate is housed in a facility where he has his own room, with a television set, and can move around freely. He is not required to wear a uniform and attends reintegration classes. What type of prison is this?
The close connections that exist between private corporations that provide services to corrections and the legislators whose political campaigns they support financially is referred to as the __________.
b. prison-commercial complex
How did the court case of Cooper v. Pate signal the end of the hands-off policy of the judiciary toward the administration of correctional institutions?
c. It held that prisoners were people entitled to the protections of the US Constitution.
How have the court's rulings on Fourth Amendment rights against unreasonable searches and seizures for prisoners compared to their decisions in cases regarding First Amendment rights of freedom of religion for prisoners?
a. The Court rulings have generally protected prisoners' rights to freedom of religion, but they have extended only limited protections against unreasonable searches and seizures.
Compare the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) and the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) passed by Congress.
a. The RFRA applies to state and federal correctional institutions and the RLUIPA applies to local correctional institutions.
d. The RFRA applies to federal correctional institutions and the RLUIPA applies to state and local correctional institutions.
The prison population in America has __________ compared to the 1970s.
Which is not a factor that experts cite as a reason for the dramatic increase in the prison population in the United States?
a. A drop in crime rates
Which of the following areas of states' budgets has increased in an amount greater than that of corrections in recent years?
Contemporary prisons differ from old style "big house" prisons in the __________.
a. inmates' degree of isolation from society
How did the focus of prison goals shift in the 1960s and 1970s from what they had been in the 1940s and 1950s?
c. Prisons incorporated treatment programs administered by teachers and counselors into their goals of security, discipline, and order.
How have the demographics of the prison population changed?
b. Prisoners during the "big house" era came from both urban and rural areas; today's prisoners come primarily from urban areas.
The three models of incarceration that have predominated since the 1940s are custodial, __________, and reintegration.
Compare the goals of the rehabilitation model with those of the reintegration model.
c. Rehabilitation emphasizes treatment for problems and issues that lead to incarceration; reintegration emphasizes maintaining ties to family and community as a method of reform.
The three goals of most prisons involve __________ inmates.
a. keeping, using, and serving
How is a prison unique from other modern institutions and organizations?
b. The employees must manage captives.
When a prison official encounters rude or hostile behavior, he or she will typically ___________.
d. use effective communication and a system of rewards to encourage cooperation
What is one drawback of the system of rewards and punishments that undermines its success as a tool to maintain order?
a. The privilege is not great enough to prevent the infraction.
Describe how an exchange relationship in a prison serves both parties to the relationship successfully.
b. The officer needs the cooperation of the inmates to look good to superiors, and the inmates need the cooperation of the officer to relax the rules occasionally.
One danger of an officer establishing a __________ relationship with a prisoner is the possibility that he or she can be manipulated by the prisoner into illegal activities.
b. sub rosa
One of the primary incentives for becoming involved in correctional work is __________.
d. the financial security of civil servant status.
How does the race of the typical corrections officer compare to that of the majority of the prison population?
c. Officers are typically white, and the majority of inmates are African American and Hispanic.
Which of the following is not a legally acceptable reason for a corrections officer to use force?
a. Verbal abuse
The majority of prisoners today could be described as __________.
d. African American or Hispanic men in their thirties
How has the growth of the population of inmates over age 50 impacted correctional operations?
a. States have had to create "geriatric prisons" designed to hold older inmates classified according to need: wheelchair users and prisoners needing long-term care.
It is estimated that there are 350,000 __________ incarcerated in correctional institutions.
b. mentally ill offenders
The values and norms of the prison social system that define the inmates' idea of the model prisoner are referred to as the __________.
c. inmate code
Contrast the differences between inmates who adapt the "gleaning" model and those who adapt the "doing time" model of behavior.
d. Those who are "gleaning" take advantage of prison programs to better themselves. Those who are "doing time" try to serve their terms with the least amount of suffering and the greatest amount of comfort.
Which of the adaptive roles that new prisoners assume seeks power and influence in the prison society and often becomes a key figure in the politics and economy of prison life?
How has the growth rate of incarcerated women from 2000 to 2010 compare to that of men during the same period?
d. The male population increased by 16 percent while the female population increased by 25 percent.
Research shows that female prison environments are __________ than male prisons.
b. less violent
The process of determining the appropriate program for an individual prisoner is called __________.
Which of the following has the Supreme Court ruled to be a constitutional right?
a. Medical services
What are two ways that experts believe prison violence can be reduced?
b. Improved prison architecture and more effective management
Which was the first state to develop a statewide probation system in 1880?
Why do many offenders under the supervision of community corrections today require closer supervision than they did 50 years ago?
d. Many offenders have committed worse crimes and have more serious criminal records than they did in the past.
What's one way that community service acts as an effective sanction for nonviolent offenders?
a. Offenders suffer a partial lack of freedom and have to do something they would not otherwise do.
Why do some offenders choose to go to prison instead of accepting an offer of intensive supervision probation (ISP)?
a. They see that ISP lasts longer and has stricter conditions than a prison sentence.
Which of the following is not a responsibility of a probation officer?
b. Reporting every technical violation an offender commits
Which of the following is a main goal of the risk management approach to probation?
c. The amount and type of supervision are determined according to how likely the offender is to return to crime.
One of the underlying assumptions of community corrections is that the rate of ________ is no higher for community corrections than it is for prison.
Which of the following is not a criticism of home confinement and the use of electronic monitoring equipment?
b. The fact that it can be imposed at any point of the criminal justice system is unfair to the offender.
What argument by the police would best convince the local community to support civil forfeiture?
d. The practice of civil forfeiture broke up a drug trafficking ring in the community.
Although private probation companies are hired to save counties money, how could they end up costing counties more?
d. They can request arrest warrants when probationers fail to pay and the county has to pay for jail expenses.
Which of the following is one of the factors in support of community corrections?
c. Many offenders' criminal records are not serious enough to warrant incarceration.
Which of the following might be a reason a poor community would argue that day reporting centers should also be located in wealthier communities?
b. Everyone should bear equal risk and burden from offenders, which means facilities should be equally distributed.
If a probationer returned home after midnight, would that necessarily count as a technical violation?
c. No, if a curfew was not a condition of probation set by a judge, then the probationer can return home whenever he or she likes.
Joan Petersilia makes the argument that ________ will pay off for both the offender and the community.
b. long-term investments in community corrections
What is one aspect of boot camp critics say would actually benefit a young offender's criminal career?
c. It creates a sense of solidarity that improves leadership qualities of young offenders.
Which of the following statements accurately characterizes the population of offenders on probation?
d. A majority of offenders have committed felonies and are younger.
Although states are formally responsible for all probation services, in practice who is in charge?
d. County judges
What is a positive effect of having locally elected judges effectively control probation services?
a. Judges can easily keep track of whether the offender has violated the conditions of his or her probation.
How could adopting the European "day fine" address concerns that fines allow the wealthy to "buy" their way out of sanctions?
b. Day fines increase the more money one makes, so they are a significant sanction no matter how wealthy a person is.
Which of the following is an example of an intermediate sanction administered in the community?
d. Day service centers
What is the recommended maximum caseload for a probation officer?
Community corrections aim to keep offenders in the community. What is a factor a community might change to make their community corrections more successful?
c. High unemployment rates
Some agencies want to choose which offenders they can accept for intermediate sanctions. This strategy leads to which practice?
In 2016, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the convicted Boston Marathon bomber, was ordered to pay $101 million to the people injured in the bombing and to families of those whom he killed, but he could not afford to pay. This is an example of a drawback of which intermediate sanction?
Which of the following actions would adherents of community justice not support?
c. The community deciding on conditions rather than courts
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
CRJU Ch. 10
Crime and Justice ch.10-12
CCJ 2020 Chapter 12
Criminal Justice Test 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
CRJ 50 Terms
CJ 110 Final Exam
Chapters/Criminal Justice in America
Chapter 10 - Criminal Justice in America
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Portuguese Oral Exam
Biology - Macromolecules & Enzymes
GOVT 2306.231 Chapter 8
ch 1-16 study guide (key term and quizzes only), i…