Home
Subjects
Textbook solutions
Create
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $35.99/year
Social Science
Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Research Methods
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Terms in this set (66)
Hindsight Bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
theory
an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behavior. A good theory produces testable prediction called hypothesis, effectively organizes observations, and stimulates research.
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
patterns in random events
random sequences often don't look random which leads us to see patterns in random events
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
scientific attitudes
Curiosity - This is our passion to explore and understand without misleading or begin to mislead. Curiosity makes modern science possible because it is though our passion and wanting to learn more that we will get further and further in solving mysteries.
Skeptisim - In order to be fully sure about an idea, we must not only see if the idea is correct, but also doubt the idea to find any flaws with it. Skepticism is also helpful when scientific ideas compete. Skepticism can find out which idea best matches the facts.
Humility - Our awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives. Our opinions in the end don't matter, what matter is the truth nature reveals in response to our questioning. Without humility, people would be "afraid" to reveal there ideas or to make faithful leaps in which could change scientific understanding.
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Goals of Research
describe, explain, predict behavior
operational definition
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
case study
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
pros: Can dig deep to find possible relationships or other ideas that could turn into hypothesis
cons: Time consuming
Subjects are not representative
Cannot prove causality
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
pros: "Real" behavior (humans don't live in a laboratory)
No reduced hawthorne effect or demand characteristic
cons:Might not be studying what you think you are studying
No control
Describes only behavior
Cannot prove causality
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
pros:Cheap - free websites and software make distributing, collecting, and processing easy
Easy- people without training can make
cons: Question may be poorly written or biased
People might misinterpret the question
small rate of return
relies on honesty
Only provides "shallow" information
sampling bias
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
Population
all of the people in a particular group in which a sample may be drawn
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
longitudinal study
a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
pros: Uncover possible confounding variables
Can be used in a variety of other research methods
cons: Time-consuming
Expensive
Difficult to control
Difficult to prove causality
cross-sectional study
A study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time.
pros: Comparison is science
Can be used in other research methods
cons: Only a snapshot, not moving picture
generalizibility
the extent to which results of a study can be applied to the outside world (external validity)
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
social desirability bias
tendency of subjects to present themselves in a socially desirable light
simple random sample
every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
cluster sample
a sampling design in which entire groups are chosen at random
nonrandom sampling
sample that is not generalizable to the population; sample that is not a random sample
Correlation
A measure of the relationship between two variables
correlation research
Research that seeks to measure the relationship between two variables without trying to determine causality or manipulating either of the variables
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
Scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
causality
correlations cannot prove causality because
x could affect y or y could affect x
third variable could be at play
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists
differential research
...
experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
independent variable
variable that is manipulated, the cause
dependent variable
the factor that is being measured, changes in response to manipulation of independent variable, the affect
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups (controls for pre-existing variable)
experimental group
the condition of the experiment that exposes participants to the treatments of interest, that is, to one level of the independent variable
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment, serve as comparison
Placebo
an inert substance given to the control group in an experiment
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
double-blind experiment
an experimental design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated
single-blind experiment
an experiment in which participants remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group
Hawthorne effect
the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied
experimenter bias
occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
demand characteristics
cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
ex post facto study
research in which subjects are chosen based on a pre-existing condition; all other variables are controlled
experimenter expectancy effect
phenomenon in which researchers unconcsiously make observations that confirm their hypothesis and reject those that don't
Counterbalancing
A method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measure design by either including all orders of treatment or by randomly determining the order for each subject
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores (most affected by outliers)
Mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution (most affected by outliers)
Variance
a statistical average of the dispersion of a variable around its mean (SD^2)
standard deviation
a statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean (sqrt V)
normal curve
hypothetical, bell-shaped distribution of scores that occurs when a normal distribution is plotted as a frequency polygon (mean=mode=median)
Histogram
a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution
statistical significance
probability, p, that the results obtained were due to chance (p<0.05 means that the results were statistically signifigant (ie not due to chance))
inferential statistics
numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population
descriptive statistics
numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.
type one error
rejecting null hypothesis when it is actually true - a false positive
type two error
not rejecting null hypothesis when the null is false - a false negative
t-test
a statistical measure of the difference between the means of two groups
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
debreifing
the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
1st Edition
Spencer A. Rathus
1,024 explanations
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
13th Edition
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
1,960 explanations
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
3rd Edition
David G Myers
955 explanations
Psychology
1st Edition
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
1,007 explanations
Sets with similar terms
AP Psych Unit 3 Vocab
45 terms
AP Psych Unit 2
42 terms
AP Psych - Modules 4,5,6,7,8
51 terms
Unit 2 vocabulary review Myers' psychology second…
40 terms
Other sets by this creator
Sensation and Perception
101 terms
Developmental Psychology
98 terms
Abnormal Psychology
53 terms
Brain Assessment
77 terms