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APUSH Brinkley Chapter 19 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (29)
Alfred Thayer Mahan
captain and future admiral in US Navy wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) - countries with sea power were greatest nations. Thought that US should build canal across central america to connect the two oceans. Also wanted navy to get bigger (did it!)
Est 1898, large following in the Northeast.
Against passage of Treaty of Paris (1898) after US-Spanish war. (Cuba. PR, Guam, phillipenes gained). Especially opposed getting philllepines. Some reasons: Imperialism is immoral, polluting american population, undercut american workers...
Members such as Carnegie, Mark Twain etc.
Revolt against foreigners in China by secret martial arts society. Attacked mostly Christian missionaries. Most notably: siege on western diplomats, took refuge in British embassy, US helped end the siege
1895 - cubans devastated island, forcing spaniards to leave. Spain put cubans in concentration camps were thousands died "Butcher Weyler" Spanish general in Cuban.
Reported on by american press (New York world and journal - yellow journalism). McKinley formally against Spain - no chance of peaceful settlement bc of the Maine debacle and Dupuy de Lome letter
Leaders of the Fillipinos in the Phillipenes (that spelling tho!) - led government and did a good job fighting/leading. Captured in 1901 which led to mark of US victory. Signed document to tell his followers to stop fighting.
formed out of the grange. Concerned with local problems - formed co-ops that were sorta self sustaining, failed bc of mismanagment. Led to birth of people's (populist) party
1900: ended military rule in PR and established a colonial government. 1 american governor, 2 chambers of legislature. US could amend or veto anything PR tried to pass
Economy got billions of dollars from exports and saw imperialist fever in Europe, didn't want to get into the game too late, and not have their be anything left
endorsed by populist party and those generally indebted or poor. Wanted silver to become a legit currency like gold. Bc there was silver mining in the West were the populist party had a lot of support
Important way station for trade with china. US wanted pearl harbor as permanent place for ships 1880s - americans also started to settle there in growing numbers (missionaries and plantation owners) - Hawaiian society lost much like NAs.
Queen Liliuokalani elected by angry/low class Hawaiians in 1891 1893 revolution staged to get annexation. Also aquired Samoa for same reasons
Continuing manifest destiny after end of the frontier - due to importance of trade (raw materials and new colonies would expand markets)
Sect of the Republican party during Rutherford B. Hayses' term (1877-1881). Led by James G. Blaine. Favored reform versus their opponents the Stalwarts who liked machine politics
battle of support for who v who
Next nominated in 1880 was James A. Garfield who was a Half-breed, Chester A. Arthur was vice, a stalwart.
Interstate Commerce Act
Banned difference in prices from long to short hauls, railroads must publish rates. In 1887 because of public pressure due to the Wabash SC case. Interstate Commerce Commission (5 people) regulated under the act - had little real effect like Sherman Act
(populist) led"Coxey's Army" in 1894 - advocated for massive public works projects to lower unemployed rate. Marched to the capital when no one would simply listen to him before from Ohio! He was arrested on arrival and congress had no actions to his demands
Mary E. Lease
Farmers' Alliance orator who became an important Populist speaker "raise less corn and more hell". Part of many rural women voters, who also wanted temperance and Populist Party wanted to give the vote to women.
February 1898 - American ship that blew up in Havana Harbor 260 died. Led to war hysteria, and eventual war after failed call for armistice.
"Open Door" Policy
Many European powers were carving up China. US had very important trade there that it didn't want to loose. US wanted access to China, but no special advantage there.
Under McKinley 1898
In 1899 turned into a policy -
- imperial powers respect rights and priveledges of others there
- Chinese officials collect tariff duties (favored US)
- Nations not to discriminate against others
Disliked by imperial powers
In response to Cuba making constitution with no mention of the US
-barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations
-gave US right to intervene to preserve independence, life, and property
-Cuba must permit US naval stations
Panic of 1893
biggest depression yet began in march when Philadelphia and Reading Railroad went bankrupt National Cordage Co failed as well which together caused stock market to crash, leading to bank failures also caused by low agricultural prices making farmers poorer (low demand/surplus). Depression also in Europe. too many railroads
20% became unemployed by 6 months
Did not really stop until 1901!
required some federal jobs can only be filled by someone who passes an exam rather than favoritism. Passed in 1883 under Chester A. Arthur
Appealed to poor independent family farmers, sharecroppers, tenant farmers, modest landowners. Place of belonging and voice for those marginalized
Never able to attract the support of labor reformers except for miners in rocky mnt states - "free silver"
Populist Party (People's)
Formed around 1890s out of Farmers' Alliances by mostly southern populists. Ran for president in 1892 through James B. Weaver and lost, but polled total 8.5 %!
for a short time included african american help, but was shamed by the south and quickly went back to mostly white. Led to the emergence of "southern demagogues" in politics
Ocala Demands of 1890, Omaha platform of 1892
- network of government warehouses for crops (could be used as collateral)
- abolition of national banks
- end to absentee ownership of land
- direct election of senators
(more people interaction with politics!!***)
- regulation and government ownership railroad, telegraph, telephone
- government postal savings bank, graduated income, inflation
some: anti semitic, urban, intellectual, eastern
fell apart after election of 1896
ceded to the US along with Guam as part of armistice of Spanish-American war -- little controversy about it. Very few natives because of disease etc. previously.
In 1900, came under official US control (Foraker act)
Jones act passed in 1917 Puerto Rico is US territory - there were revolts etc. because of this act.
Bc land cash crop sugar, PR became deprendant on imported food for sustainance. Unstable and PR still had revolts
Sherman Antitrust Act
Passed in 1890 under Ben Harrison - made almost not impact bc it was weakened by the courts
because of Cuban revolt. 5 month war, grunt work done by cuban rebels to wipe out Spain there. Vastly more americans died from disease than fighting. Racial conflicts within army, wrong supplies and tactics for fighting in Caribbean.
Rough riders -> led to rise of Theodore Roosevelt
The first major farm org. est in 1860s. Founded by Oliver H. Kelley - officially called National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry.
At first their goals were to bring farmers together and establish new techniques for farming, community to relieve lonliness.
Because of the Great Depression, membership grew, they tried to cut out middlemen to make more money. They set up network of enterprises, eventually failed.
Politically gained control of some legislature of the mid western states. In 1870s passed Granger Laws to restrict railroad monopoly (fail).
By 1880 the Grange was essentially inactive
Roosevelt wanted to expand, and the Spanish american war was great opp. May 1 1898 USA destroyed spanish, and surrendered easily. Showed that the US's intentions were changing for the war, imperialism vs. big stick democracy
William Jennings Bryan (D)
Populist who gave teh speech "Cross of Gold" at the DNC in 1896 - after his speech the Democrats became fully free-silverers.
Elected as Democratic nominee for President. Because he was nominated the populist party essentially was absorbed into the Democratic party
First potential president to do a campaign trail...
William McKinley (R)
before becoming presiednt, as an Ohio rep McKinley became the name of the McKinley Tariff (raise) in 1890. Led to the downfall of him and the Republican party for a short while.
Ran a "front porch campaign" - won!
as POTUS, first action was to raise tariff through Dingley Tariff - enacted currency act of 1900 which confirmed gold as currency and gave a set value to it in relation to the dollar
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