144 terms

Biology Chapter 4 Study Guide (Part 2)

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_________ is the sum of an organisms life processes.
metabolism
Metabolism is the ___ of an organisms life processes.
sum
Metabolism is the sum of an organisms ____ ________.
life processes
A _______ is a twisted and looped polypeptide chain of amino acids.
protein
A protein is a _______ and______polypeptide chain of amino acids.
twisted, looped
A protein is a twisted and looped _______ ______of amino acids.
polypeptide chain
A protein is a twisted and looped polypeptide chain of ______ ____.
amino acids
DNA is made of ________s.
nucleotides
____ is made of nucleotides
DNA
___ is made of four bases
DNA
DNA is made of ____ bases
four
DNA is made of four _____
bases
What are the 4 bases for DNA coding?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
In ____ base pairing, thymine becomes uracil.
RNA
In RNA base pairing, ______ becomes ______
thymine, uracil
What are the base pairing rules for DNA?
A-T, C-G
A-T and C-G are pairing rules for ____
DNA
A-U and C-G are pairing rules for
RNA
What are the base pairing rules for RNA?
A-U, C-G
What does the "u" stand for in RNA base pairing?
uracil
A _______ of 3 bases determine the sequence of 20 different amino acids.
sequence
A sequence of ____ bases determine the sequence of 20 different amino acids.
3
A sequence of 3 ______ determine the sequence of 20 different amino acids.
bases
A sequence of 3 bases determine the _______ of 20 different amino acids.
sequence
A sequence of 3 bases determine the sequence of _____ different amino acids.
20
A sequence of 3 bases determine the sequence of 20 different ______ _____.
amino acids
A _____ is a triplet of bases (on mRNA)
codon
A codon is a _____ of bases (on mRNA)
triplet
A codon is a triplet of ____ (on mRNA)
bases
A codon is a triplet of bases (on _____)
mRNA
_______is the process of DNA placing its code into RNA.
transcription
Transcription is the process of ___ placing its code into ___
DNA, RNA
Transcription is the process of DNA placing its ____ into RNA
code
_______ (___) is what is produced by transcription
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is what is produced by _______
transcription
________ ___ carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
messenger RNA
Messenger RNA carries the ___ from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
code
Messenger RNA carries the code from the ____ in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
DNA
Messenger RNA carries the code from the DNA in the ______ to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
nucleus
Messenger RNA carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the _______ in the cytoplasm.
ribosomes
Messenger RNA carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the ________.
cytoplasm
mRNA and tRNA are completely ________
different
Transcription=
transcribe
transcribe=
transcription
____ can't leave the nucleus.
DNA
DNA can't leave the ______
nucleus
DNA can't ____ the nucleus
leave
The ____ has instructions for making proteins.
code
The code has ________ for making proteins.
instructions
The code has instructions for making _________
proteins
_______ are made in the cytoplasm, not the nucleus.
proteins
Proteins are made in the ______, not the _______.
cytoplasm, nucleus
____ ____ are found in the cytoplasm of the cell.
amino acids
Amino acids are found in the ______ of the cell.
cytoplasm
_____ _____ are attached to transfer RNA.
amino acids
Amino acids are attached to _______ ____
transfer RNA
Amino acids are ________ to transfer RNA
attached
______ has also attached an anticodon
transfer RNA
Transfer RNA has also attached an _________
anticodon
The ________ is a triplet of bases carried on the tRNA
anticodon
The anticodon is a ______ of bases carried on the tRNA
triplet
The anticodon is a triplet of _____ carried on the tRNA
bases
The anticodon is a triplet of bases carried on the _____
transfer RNA
______ are the ones that pair up with the codon bases on the mRNA.
anticodons
Anticodons are the ones that _______ with the codon bases on the mRNA
pair
Anticodons are the ones that pair with the _____ bases on the mRNA
codon
Anticodons are the ones that pair with the codon bases on the _____
messenger RNA
RNA can have thousands of ____
codons
____ can have thousands of codons
RNA
RNA can have ______ of codons
thousands
Codon=
messenger RNA
anticodon=
transfer RNA
______ is the movement of something from one place to another.
transfer
_______ is the process by which DNA makes more of itself
replication
____ and _____ can't communicate, so the ribosome is like a translator.
mRNA, tRNA
mRNA and tRNA can't _______, so the ribosome is like a translator.
communicate
mRNA and tRNA can't communicate, so the _______is like a translator.
ribosome
mRNA and tRNA can't communicate, so the ribosome is like a _______
translator
tRNA is like a ____
bus
_____ is like a bus
tRNA
Explanation only: tRNA is like a bus; once it drops off amino acids, it goes and picks up more. The anticodon is like the scroll bar on top of the bus tells where the bus is going. Amino acids are like the passengers; they will be dropped off. Amino acids are bonding to make a polypeptide chain/protein.
...
The actual process of assembling the polypeptide (protein) from coded information is called _______.
translation
The actual process of ________ the polypeptide (protein) from coded information is called translation.
assembling
The actual process of assembling the________(_____) from coded information is called translation.
polypeptide, protein
The actual process of assembling the polypeptide (protein) from _____ ________is called translation.
coded information
1 codon codes for 1 specific _____ ____
amino acid
1 ____ codes for 1 specific amino acid
codon
____ codon codes for __ _____ amino acid
one, one specific
mRNA leaves the nucleus with the code from the DNA, and ________ (___) lines up with it at the start codon.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
____ leaves the nucleus with the code from the DNA
mRNA
mRNA leaves the _____ with the code from the DNA
nucleus
mRNA leaves the nucleus with the ____ from the DNA
code
mRNA leaves the nucleus with the code from the ____
DNA
_______ lines up with ______ at the start codon
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA
messenger RNA lines up with ribosomal RNA at the ____ _____
start codon
________ will continue until the ribosome reaches a stop code
translation
Translation will continue until the _____ reaches a stop code
ribosome
Translation will continue until the ribosome reaches a ____ _____
stop code
____ is a section of DNA that codes for a protein
gene
Gene is a _____ of DNA that codes for a protein
section
Gene is a section of ___ that codes for a protein
DNA
Gene is a section of DNA that ____ for a protein
codes
Gene is a section of DNA that codes for a _____
protein
_____ _____happen when the nucleotide sequence is changed by even one nucleotide.
point mutations
Point mutations happen when the _____ ______is changed by even one nucleotide.
nucleotide sequence
Point mutations happen when the nucleotide sequence is______ by even one nucleotide.
changed
Point mutations happen when the nucleotide sequence is changed by even ___ ________
one nucleotide
________ is when a nucleotide sequence is removed and replaced with a different one or if nucleotides are inverted.
substition
nucleotide=
base
base=
nucleotide
Substitution is when a ______ _______is removed and replaced with a different one or if nucleotides are inverted.
nucleotide sequence
Substitution is when a nucleotide sequence is_______ and ______ with a different one or if nucleotides are inverted.
removed, replaced
Substitution is when a nucleotide sequence is removed and replaced with a ________ ____or if nucleotides are inverted.
different one
Substitution is when a nucleotide sequence is removed and replaced with a different one or if _______ are inverted.
nucleotides
Substitution is when a nucleotide sequence is removed and replaced with a different one or if nucleotides are _______
inverted
_______ is if an extra nucleotide is put in which shifts all the nucleotides down by one codon, which is called frame shift.
addition
Addition is if an ____ ______is put in which shifts all the nucleotides down by one codon, which is called frame shift.
extra nucleotide
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is ____ ___which shifts all the nucleotides down by one codon, which is called frame shift.
put in
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is put in which _____ all the nucleotides down by one codon, which is called frame shift.
shifts
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is put in which shifts all the _____ down by one codon, which is called frame shift.
nucleotides
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is put in which shifts all the nucleotides ____by one codon, which is called frame shift.
down
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is put in which shifts all the nucleotides down by ___ _____, which is called frame shift.
one codon
Addition is if an extra nucleotide is put in which shifts all the nucleotides down by one codon, which is called _____ _____
frame shift
_____ is the removal of a nucleotide, again causing a frame shift.
deletion
Deletion is the ______ of a nucleotide, again causing a frame shift.
removal
Deletion is the removal of a _______, again causing a frame shift.
nucleotide
Deletion is the removal of a nucleotide, again causing a _____ _____
frame shift
Only _____(_____) can go into the chart
mRNA, codons
Only mRNA (codons) can go into the _____
chart
Not all organisms have the same ______ _____
metabolic rate
_____ is a process that builds molecules and stores energy
anabolism
Anabolism is a process that _____ molecules and ______ energy
builds, stores
Anabolism is a process that builds _______ and stores _______
molecules, energy
_______ Is a process that breaks down molecules and releases energy.
catabolism
Catabolism Is a process that _____ ____molecules and ______energy.
breaks down, releases
Catabolism Is a process that breaks down ______ and releases _____.
molecules, energy
During which processes are all three types of RNA involved?
a. protein synthesis
b. cell division
c. photosynthesis
d. cellular respiration
a. protein synthesis
What delivers the amino acids to the ribosome?
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. DNA
d. rRNA
a. mRNA
Each codon codes for a(n)
a. protein
b. amino acid
c. carbohydrate
d. lipid
b. amino acid
The DNA code is carried from the nucleus by
a. tRNA
b. templates
c. anticodons
d. mRNA
d. mRNA
Metabolism is
a. all the cell's processes
b. making RNA
c. making DNA
d. making enzymes
a. all the cell's processes
What tRNA would join with the codon UUA?
AAU
What mRNA would join with the anticodon UGG?
AGC
How many bases of mRNA are responsible for coding for one amino acid?
threee
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