42 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 27

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incandescence
term for the production of visible light by a heated body
blackbody
term for an ideal absorber, which absorbs all the radiation that falls upon it
radiancy
term for the luminal energy emitted per unit time from a unit area
Stefan-Boltzmann law
term for the relationship betweent the radiated energy and the temperature of a blackbody
Wien's law
the law that states that the most strongly emitted wavelength is a function of temperature
quanta
the discrete amounts in which radiation is emitted, according to Planck
quantum theory
Max Planck's theory that radiation is emitted in discrete amounts when an electrically charged body oscillates
photoelectric effect
term for the ejection of electrons from a surface exposed to ultraviolet light or any other radiation
photoelectrons
term for the electrons ejected from a surface exposed to ultraviolet light or other radiation
work function
term for the amount of work that must be done to remove an electron from the outermost orbit of an outlying atom to a distance infinitely far away
saturation potential
term for a certain positive potential beyond which the current rises very little
stopping potential
term for a certain potential at which the current in a collector ceases
threshold frequency
term for the frequency above which photoemission occurs even if the light is extremely weak, and below which photemission never occurs
photons
term for the particles of which light consists
Compton effect
the effect that occurs when a block of graphite is placed in the path of a narrow beam of xrays, and the x-rays scatter in such a way that, at any angle of scattering, they are most intense at two wavelengths: the incident wavelength and a longer wavelength that increases as the scaterring angle increases
de Broglie's equation
the equation which states that the wavelength of any material particle or body is equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of mass and velocity
matter waves
When a property like wavelength is a factor, matter may be viewed as ___ ___.
wave-particle duality
the theory that matter exists simultaneously as both waves and particles, the particles moving in a manner dictated by the waves
complementarity
the concept that every quantum system exhibits both particle and wave properties, but the demonstration of one property limits the demonstration of the other at the same moment
quantum numbers
the four numbers that provide a statistical description of an electron's likelihood to be found in a given region where they will demonstrate observed characteristics
Pauli exclusion principle
the principle which states that no two electrons within an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers
orbital
term for the hollow, three-dimensional shape that shows positions of high probability for finding an electron around a nucleus
principal
The ____ quantum number (denoted n) indicates a specific energy level containing electrons at an average radius from the nucelus.
subshell
The ____ (denoted by l) indicates the possible orbitals within a given energy level.
node
term for the space beween two shells-- a place of low probablility for containing an electron
magnetic
The ____ quantum number (denoted m1) indicates the spatial orientation of an orbital.
spin
The ___ quantum number (denoted ms) differentiates the two electrons in the same orientation within the same orbital within the same energy level.
line emission spectra
term for the specific frequencies of radiation emitted by elements or compounds in gaseous form, which increase in intensity as a function of temperature
line absorption spectrum
term for the spectrum whose prominent lines are identical in location to the two prominent lines in the line emission spectrum of the same element
wavelengths
A gas emits the same ____ that is absorbs.
model
term for a theoretical picture of something
Niels Bohr
the Danish physicist who constructed a model of a hydrogen atom in order to predict the behavior of its electron
vary continuously
Bohr stated that the energy of a hydrogen atom's electron does not ___ ____.
quantized
term signifying that all the electrons within any atom are restricted to specific energy states
higher, lower
Bohr postulated that light is emitted by the hydrogen electron only when it moves from a ___ energy state to a ___ one.
visible light, radiation
Bohr proposed that light emited by the hydrogen electron during transition to a lower energy state takes the form a of a single photon with a frequency of ___ ___ or of ___ elsewhere on the spectrum.
unpredictable
Bohr claimed that the jumps of the hydrogen electron are esentially ____.
ground state
term for the lowest possible energy state of an electron
excited state
term for the higher energy state of an electron
wave mechanical model
Schrodinger's model which related an electron's energy state to a cyclical standing wave
wave function
According to the wave equation, ψ gives the value of the ___ ___ under a given set of conditions.
uncertainty principle
Heisenberg's principle which states that we know either an electron's position or momentum, but not both at the same time
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