chpt 18 bio vocab

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taxonomy
discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
taxon
group or level of orginization into which organisms are classified
family
group or genera that shares many characteristcs
order
group of similar families
class
group of similar orders
phylum
group of closely related classes
kingdom
large taxonic group, consisting of closely related phyla
phylogeny
the study of evolutionary relationships amoung organisms
evolutionary classification
method of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history
derived characters
characteristcs that appear in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
cladogram
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships amoung a group of organisms
molecular clock
model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
domain
most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
bacteria
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
eubacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made of peptidoglycan
archea
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
archaebacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
eukarya
domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
protista
kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or or fungi
fungi
kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
plantae
kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
animalia
kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls